Why Prince William And Kate Middleton Toured The National Graphene Institute - Forbes -10/14/2016 This summer, a Chinese firm unveiled the G-King, reportedly the first battery to feature the Nobel-prizewinning material graphene. Today, though, graphene crossed paths with actual royalty. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, also known as Prince William and Kate Middleton, paid a visit to the United Kingdom’s National Graphene Institute.
How Do You Think Graphene Will Change the World? - Engineering.com - 4/07/2016 Challenge/Contest: What would you create with unlimited access to the amazing material that is graphene?
Five new uses for miracle material graphene - Cosmos - 3/03/2016 Graphene – a single-layer lattice of carbon atoms – is yet to make the jump from laboratory to day-to-day life, but that's not stopped researchers coming up with new ways to exploit its marvellous properties. Belinda Smith reports on five of the latest.
5 ways the ‘supermaterial’ graphene could transform the tech around us - Digital Trends - 2/24/2016 Graphene enables flexible displays, Graphene fingerprint sensors are faster than ever, Graphene batteries could last forever, Graphene gloves could read temperature and gestures, Graphene heart rate sensors could go anywhere.
Understanding Graphene – Part 1 - Investor Intel - 2/04/2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry reports that it takes about 10 layers before the electronic properties revert to those of graphite. This would be a clear place to draw the line between graphite and graphene and help understand the products out there in the market. At the time of writing in 2016, in the global marketplace, graphene can be bought in kilogram quantities. This is usually as graphene powder or slurry of multi layer nano-flakes in a liquid in varying levels of quality. True graphene is available in millimetre or centimetre scale quantities usually attached to a copper or silicon surface. As such true graphene is more a product for research organisations than an industrial raw material. The reason why true graphene is available in such small quantities is because it is rather hard to create. There are a variety of methods used to manufacture graphene these, dear Investorintel reader, are the subject of the next column. -
The Age of Graphene and how it will transform our mobile experiences-Android Authority - 1/29/2016 You may have heard about graphene. Ever since its discovery, scientists have been touting its potential to transform our world. From space elevators to medical nanodevices, the list of potential applications of graphene is huge. But what exactly is graphene? What are its properties and its most interesting applications? And how can it change mobile tech? Let’s dive in!
Graphene foam's uniqueness-Deccan Herald - 1/5/2016 Now, how about a different kind of foam that protects your mobile phone from accidental drop or better still protects you from harmful gases? Known as ‘graphene foam’ in the world of nanotechnology, this kind of foam is quite different from what we usually encounter in our everyday lives.
Bullet holes and graphene caves: picturing engineering (w/video) - Nanowerk - 11/10/2015 The annual competition showcases the breadth of engineering research at the University, from objects at the nanoscale all the way to major infrastructure. The winning images can be viewed on the Engineering Department’s website from today, alongside dozens of other entries.
Discover graphene with University online course-Manchester 1824 - 11/05/2015 The University of Manchester is launching an online course to explore the vast potential of one-atom-thick material graphene.
The Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) are aimed at bringing The University of Manchester's teaching to a global audience, as all is required of potential students is an internet connection.
At the end of the eight-week course, students will receive a Statement of Accomplishment and a thorough understanding of graphene and related two-dimensional materials.
Taught in English, the course requires between one and three hours a week of study, and will run for eight weeks beginning on February 1st. Learning is carried out through videos, discussions, quizzes, and reading and research activities.
Kostya Novoselov, father of graphene-Sunday Morning Herald - 10/30/2015 Graphene's super-thin, lightweight, flexible structure and highly conductive properties mean it is poised to revolutionise numerous sectors from electronics and energy storage to manufacturing and biomedicine. It's graphene that will make wacky concepts like foldable, fast-charging smartphones and lightweight, energy-efficient aircraft possible.
"It might take five, 10, 15 years before we know how to grow it in large areas – although, we had the same feeling about isolating graphene 10 years [or so] ago and the progress since then has been really enormous," Novoselov says.
A material supreme: How graphene will shape the world of tomorrow-Digital Trends - 10/17/2015 Today, a new material has the potential to alter the future. Dubbed a "supermaterial," graphene has researchers the world over scrambling to better understand it. The material’s long list of superlative traits make it seem almost magical, but it could have very real and drastic implications for the future of physics and engineering.
Graphene is missing ingredient to help supercharge batteries for life on the move-The Conversation - 8/11/2015 Devices built with graphene would not experience the same problems of heating faced by current electronics – they could run indefinitely with very little increase in temperature. Heat is bad for electronics; it means energy is being wasted and it often serves to reduce the efficiency of the device further as it heats up. Pure graphene virtually eliminates energy losses of this kind, which makes devices produced from it extremely energy-efficient. For consumer electronics, this could mean significantly more powerful devices with massively improved battery life – a win-win scenario if ever there was one.
What’s more, studies indicate that using graphene to replace or enhance components of Li-ion batteries can significantly improve the energy density and longevity of the battery. One popular technique has been to make the anodes or cathodes in Li-ion batteries out of graphene...
This Is the ‘Miracle Material’ That Will Change Everything-Time Magazine - 7/20/2015 Introductory Video
Video Friday: Graphene, Nanomaterials, a Documentary on Nanotechnology-H+ Magazine - 7/08/2015 Educational Video
Graphene: The Material Of Tomorrow-Time - 7/01/2015 Video clip.
How to unleash the potential of graphene and 2D materials-Graphene Flagship release - 6/26/2015 Summary of speaches at Graphene Week in UK.
How Graphene–based Nanomaterials and Films Revolutionize Science Explained in July 9 Webinar Hosted by Park Systems-Nanotechnology Now - 6/29/2015 Park Systems, world-leader in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is hosting a webinar to provide advanced scientific research into new classes of Nanoscale Graphene-based materials poised to revolutionize industries such as semiconductor, material science, bio science and energy. Touted as 'the wonder material of the 21st Century' by the researchers who were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for their graphene research, this carbon-based lightweight material is 200 times stronger than steel and one of the most promising and versatile materials ever discovered.
What is graphene? 11 key facts about the 'wonder stuff'-Manchester Evening News - 6/22/2015 It is National Graphene Week and we are bringing you a series of key facts about the wonder material.
Introduction to Graphene Science and Technology-edX - 3/21/2015 What is graphene? Graphene is the world’s first 2-dimensional material and is the thinnest, strongest, and most flexible material known to exist. A special form of carbon, graphene can conduct electricity and heat better than anything else.
The course will introduce you to the exciting world of graphene science and technology. You will learn about the fundamentals of graphene and how this material offers new insights into nanotechnology and quantum physics. You will also learn about emerging practical applications for graphene. Topics covered include material properties, electronics, physics, physical chemistry, synthesis and device fabrication and application.
Graphene Week 2015. Next stop: Manchester-Graphene Flagship - 5/12/2015 The Graphene Week 2015 will be held during 22 – 26 June 2015, in Manchester, UK. The conference is commissioned by the Graphene Flagship, with support from the University of Manchester, the National Graphene Institute (NGI), and the City of Manchester. Its focus is on science, technology and emerging applications of graphene, related 2D materials and heterostructures.
A ‘Miracle Material’ can take the World to the Higher Technology - Good introduction to Graphene for first-timers.
KNI: Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech - Caltech has established an initiative to support a long-term program of innovative research at the frontiers of nanoscale science and engineering.
Chalmers University Offers Massive Open Online Course on Graphene - At the beginning of 2015, Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden will start its first (massive open online course) free of charge and accessible to anyone with a computer. The course will be on the super-material graphene, which has not been the subject for a mooc previously.
College and Graduate Programs for nanotechnology research and development - List of degree programs, including Bachelors degrees with majors, minors and concentrations; Masters degrees; and PhD programs in nanotechnology.
Basic Research/Graphene Properties
Graphene-based composite puts ultra-low-power transistors in a spin The Engineer - 11/08/2017 It is now possible to place 100 million transistors in each square millimetre of a computer chip, but such advances come at a cost in relation to devices overheating.
Researchers from York University and Roma Tre University in Italy believe the solution lies in composite materials built from monolayers of graphene and the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC). They found these materials could be used to achieve a fine electrical control over the electron’s spin.
The new research, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, could lead to low-energy consumer electronics.
Graphene tests set for zero-G flight Phys.org - 11/13/2017 Two teams of researchers will explore the benefits of graphene as a light-propulsion material in solar sails, and as a smart coating in loop heat pipes for satellites. Both experiments will be performed in microgravity conditions, to simulate the extreme conditions in space. The solar sails will float in microgravity in a drop tower experiment, while the research team investigating heat pipes will experience weightlessness onboard a parabolic flight.
New and faster method to determine material properties of graphene - Phys.org - 11/7/2017 Peter Steeneken (professor) and Farbod Alijani (assistant professor) from the Dynamics of Micro and Nanosystems Section at the Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering have developed a new method to determine the material properties of graphene with the aid of high-frequency non-linear dynamics. Their new method makes it possible to accurately measure the Young's modulus (elastic modulus) of graphene and enables a potentially quicker measurement. This could make it easier to characterise a large number of membranes in a production process, for example. This week, Peter and Farbod published their article entitled 'Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials' in Nature Communications.
In this publication, Peter and Farbod outline a new method to learn more about ultra-thin materials that are only several atoms thick, such as graphene. By means of an electrostatic force of a few piconewtons, they and PhD student Dejan Davidovikj were able to bring graphene membranes into vibration. With the aid of an interferometric setup, they carried out a measurement of the dynamics of these membranes with sub-nm resolution at frequencies of more than 10 MHz. By providing sufficient force to the membranes non-linear resonance characteristics become visible. These characteristics have been observed before, but until now, no good method for analysing them for atomically thin materials was available. In collaboration with McGill University (Canada) and the Faculty of Applied Sciences, a new model has been developed that can use these non-linear resonances to determine the Young's modulus.
Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities - Science Daily - 11/02/2017 Heat transport through pillared graphene could be made faster by manipulating the junctions between sheets of graphene and the nanotubes that connect them, according to researchers.
Graphene Breakthrough Brings Unbreakable Smartphone Screens Closer - Newsweek - 11/1/2017 Physicists from the University of Sussex in England found a solution to brittle smartphone screens by combining silver nanowires with graphene—a one-atom-thick material that is 200 times stronger than steel, more conductive than copper and as flexible as rubber.
Graphene researchers engineer smallest possible slits for desalination - The Engineer - 10/30/2017 The researchers made their slit devices from two 100nm thick crystal slabs of graphite measuring several microns across. They then placed rectangular-shaped pieces of 2D atomic crystals of bilayer graphene and monolayer MoS2 at each edge of one of the slabs, placing another slab on top of the first. This produced a gap between the slabs that had a height equal to the spacers’ thickness.
Taming 'wild' electrons in graphene; Discovery could lead to novel electronic devices - Science News - 10/23/2017 Graphene -- a one-atom-thick layer of carbon -- is a better conductor than copper and is very promising for electronic devices, but with one catch: Electrons that move through it can't be stopped. Until now, that is. Scientists have learned how to tame the unruly electrons in graphene, paving the way for the ultra-fast transport of electrons with low loss of energy in novel systems.
Graphene Infrared Eye Needs No Signal Amplification-IEEE Spectrum - 2/3/2017 An international team of researchers under the umbrella of the EU-funded Graphene Flagship have taken a significant step in thermal infrared (IR) photodetctors with the development of the most sensitive uncooled graphene-based thermal detector yet fabricated. These new photodetectors, known as bolometers, are so sensitive that they can register the presence of a scant few nanowatts of radiation. That level of radiation is about a thousandth of what would be given off by a hand waving in front of the detector.
Review: Graphene could revolutionize photonic and opto-electronic devices - Nanowerk - 12/28/2016 Comprising thirteen chapters written by world-renowned researchers in this field, the book covers a wide range of optical aspects of graphene, ranging from fundamental quantum mechanical properties to opto-electronic device applications of graphene.
The chapters cover linear and nonlinear spectroscopy and optical response, including ultrafast pump-and-probe spectroscopy, terahertz spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, with some chapters focusing on experiments and others on theory. They also cover examples of applications such as saturable absorbers, optical modulators and transparent electrodes.
For readers less familiar with graphene, an introductory tutorial has also been included in the book. The tutorial presents basic physical concepts of graphene at a graduate-student level. In particular, it covers the electronic bandstructure, optical matrix elements, interband polarization, and the absorption spectrum of graphene.
Researchers apply graphene oxide in production of fuel cells - MEHR News Agency - 12/27/2016 Iranian researchers have synthesized a membrane by using graphene oxide and creating a nanocomposite from a natural polymer which has application as an electrically conductive membrane for producing fuel cells.
Recently, the use Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs, due to their high energy conversion efficiency, and lack of environmental and sound pollutions, is being recommended as an efficient way to generate electric energy.
Alireza Sharif, the project manager, said "at the moment, the commercial membrane ‘Nafion’ is the most common proton exchange membrane used in fuel cells, but Nafion is expensive and its high Methanol leak has prevented the commercialization of DMFC technology."
According to him, a natural and inexpensive polymer has been used as the background phase and graphene oxide was applied to improve the physical and chemical properties for synthesizing a membrane with electrical conductivity.
Results show that the use of modified nanoparticles increases the selectivity of nanocomposite membranes seven times more than the original membranes. Also, the nanocomposite membrane has a proton conductivity five times more than the original membranes.
Sharif maintained that the use of the study’s results will lead to a drop in the finished prices of fuel cells at an industrial scale.
Graphene: The New Superman of Materials - Interesting Engineering - 12/26/2016 A team from Austria’s Institute of Applied Physics at TU Wien showed just how quick the electrons in graphene can be. The impact of xenon ions with a highly-charged graphene film caused electrons to be stripped from a spot. Each xenon atom can remove 20 electrons in any one area. Given that each carbon atom only has six electrons, the xenon could’ve easily ruined graphene’s stability.
"The current density is around 1,000 times higher than that which would lead to the destruction of the material under normal circumstances," said one of the researchers, Elisabeth Gruber,
What shocked researchers was the material’s ability to replace the electrons in those spots in just femtoseconds (one quadrillionth of a second).
Spin filtering at room temperature with graphene - Phys.org - 12/22/2016 An interdisciplinary team of scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have reported the first demonstration of metallic spin filtering at room temperature using ferromagnet-graphene-ferromagnet thin film junction devices—spin is a fundamental property of electrons, in addition to charge, that can be used to transmit, process and store data.
Graphene’s latest miracle? The ability to detect cancer cells - Digital Trends - 12/21/2016 "What we’ve shown is that a graphene-based system can detect the activity of a cell, and by doing that we can differentiate between a cancer cell and a normal cell," Vikas Berry, associate professor and head of chemical engineering at UIC, told Digital Trends. "That’s because a cancer cell is hyperactive and has a different biochemistry on its surface and degree of activity that it exhibits. Based on the activity of the cell, we are able to make our differentiation."
New efficient and low-cost method for hydrogenation of graphene with visible light - Phys.org - 10/6/2016 The study shows that the two-dimensional and atom-thin carbon material graphene reacts with formic acid in a water solution upon irradiation with visible light. In the reaction, formic acid acts as masked hydrogen and a material is produced where hydrogen extensively has been added to graphene. One says that graphene has been hydrogenated. The study was performed by Assoc. Prof. Henrik Ottosson's research group at the Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, together with colleagues in Chemistry, Physics and Engineering at Uppsala University and at AstraZeneca Gothenburg.
"The reaction is convenient and cheap, and hydrogenated graphene may be applied within areas such as hydrogen storage. Additionally, upon functionalization of graphene one can open a band gap and this fact is of high relevance for electronics applications," says Henrik Ottosson.
Electrons in graphene behave like light, only better - Phys.org - 10/5/2016 A team led by Cory Dean, assistant professor of physics at Columbia University, Avik Ghosh, professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Virginia, and James Hone, Wang Fong-Jen Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Columbia Engineering, has directly observed—for the first time—negative refraction for electrons passing across a boundary between two regions in a conducting material. First predicted in 2007, this effect has been difficult to confirm experimentally. The researchers were able to observe the effect in graphene, demonstrating that electrons in the atomically thin material behave like light rays, which can be manipulated by such optical devices as lenses and prisms. The findings, which are published in the September 30 edition of Science, could lead to the development of new types of electron switches, based on the principles of optics rather than electronics.
Graphene Nanoribbons Combined With Common Polymer Can Bridge Damaged Neurons - Forbes - 9/30/2016 Generally speaking, once nerve damage occurs in animals and humans, it is irreversible and can have debilitating consequences. Researchers at Rice University in the United States have however recently discovered a way of using wonder material graphene in combination with a widely used polymer, polyethylene glycol, to create a material that can actually bridge the gap in damaged nerve cells.
Direct observation of graphene decoupling on Cu(111) - Phys.org - 9/20/2016 The graphene films, grown on the copper (Cu) substrates must be detached clean without leaving residue behind, as residual metallic impurities can significantly alter electronic and electrochemical properties of graphene.
However, thanks to recent advances in graphene transfer method, the electrochemical corrosion of graphene coatings on Cu has allowed the monolayer-thick material to be mechanically delaminated without significantly compromising its structural integrity.
Researchers develop more efficient, reliable means of electrically contacting graphene - Phys.org - 9/20/2016 Researchers from the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) devised a new way to electrically contact graphene with liquid metals rather than typical rigid electrodes such as gold and silver. Using this new method, the team demonstrated low-contact resistance with a graphene material that is comparable to the best examples published in scientific literature, but with added advantages such as flexibility and low cost.
Shape of 'molecular graphene' determines electronic properties - Phys.org - 8/31/2016 Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form an important class of molecules, which can be regarded as small graphene species and which play a prominent role in the development of organic electronics. Scientists at Radboud University, the University of Amsterdam and FOM now show that the edge structures of these apparently similar molecules are responsible for spectacular differences in transport properties, allowing for smarter design of new materials. Nature Communications publishes the results on August 31.
PAHs are made up of connected hexagonal carbon rings. They are useful to produce materials for new superconductors on the molecular scale, but they are also of astrophysical interest as a substantial fraction of the interstellar carbon is believed to be locked up in these very stable molecules. For all of these applications, a fundamental understanding of the electron distribution and its relation with topological features of PAHs is important. The exact way in which carbon rings are attached – the topology of the molecule – seemed to play a major role here, but it was unclear how. With advanced spectroscopic experiments at the FELIX Laboratory, physicist Héctor Alvaro Galué together with scientists from Radboud University and the University of Amsterdam, has shown that the topology determines how the electron distribution is linked to vibrational dynamics of the carbon skeleton.
With the FELIX free electron laser at Radboud University, Alvaro Galué determined the vibrational spectra of two positively charged PAH ions that consist of five connected hexagons. Pentacene has a zigzag edge structure (Figure 1, right and Figure 2, top) while the edge structure of picene is commonly referred to as armchair (Figure 1, left and Figure 2, bottom). Unexpectedly, a comparison of the IR spectra of the two PAH ions revealed large intensity differences for the vibrations of the two PAHs.
Graphene breakthrough is big news for future of semiconductors - New Atlas - 8/29/2016 The supermaterial graphene has been receiving quite a bit of attention over the past few years. The latest breakthrough comes in the form of a method for using the strong, super-conducting one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms to create two-dimensional materials that could, in turn, be used in the next generation of lasers, electronics and sensors.
Materials scientists at Pennsylvania State University synthesized two-dimensional gallium nitride for the first time ever using a graphene encapsulation, lending the material's superb electronic properties and strength to the resulting flat gallium nitride.
Three-dimensional gallium nitride is what's known as a wide-bandgap semiconductor that can allow devices to operate at much higher voltages, frequencies or temperatures than conventional semiconductors. By growing gallium nitride in a two-dimensional form with the help of graphene, the flattening of the structure essentially transforms it into an ultra wide-bandgap semiconductor with even more supercharged capabilities.
The researchers say that growing the two-dimensional semiconductors effectively triples the energy spectrum they can operate in. The graphene-coated flat material can work within the entire ultraviolet, visible and infrafed spectrum, making it an exciting candidate for new uses in lasers and other electrical-optical devices that manipulate or transmit light.
Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it's... er, Graphene bubbles – 200 times stronger than Superman - The Register - 8/25/2016 The force required to make the indent was measured for graphene-enclosed bubbles. Researchers found that the smaller the bubble, the higher amount of pressure it could withstand. Micron-sized bubbles can hold about 200 megapascals, while bubbles smaller than 10 nanometres can take 1 gigapascal of pressure.
'Artificial atom' created in graphene - Phys.org - 8/22/2016
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". Artificial atoms may also feature properties beyond those of conventional ones, with the potential for many applications for example in quantum computing. Such additional properties have now been shown for artificial atoms in the carbon material graphene. The results have been published in the journal Nano Letters, the project was a collaboration of scientists from TU Wien (Vienna, Austria), RWTH Aachen (Germany) and the University of Manchester (GB).
Building Artificial Atoms
"Artificial atoms open up new, exciting possibilities, because we can directly tune their properties", says Professor Joachim Burgdörfer (TU Wien, Vienna). In semiconductor materials such as gallium arsenide, trapping electrons in tiny confinements has already been shown to be possible. These structures are often referred to as "quantum dots". Just like in an atom, where the electrons can only circle the nucleus on certain orbits, electrons in these quantum dots are forced into discrete quantum states.
Even more interesting possibilities are opened up by using graphene, a material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. "In most materials, electrons may occupy two different quantum states at a given energy. The high symmetry of the graphene lattice allows for four different quantum states. This opens up new pathways for quantum information processing and storage" explains Florian Libisch from TU Wien. However, creating well-controlled artificial atoms in graphene turned out to be extremely challenging.
Graphene Doubles Up on Quantum Dots' Promise in Quantum Computing - IEEE Spectrum - 8/23/2016 Researchers at Technische Universität Wien (TU Wein, or the Vienna University of Technology), along with colleagues from the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom and Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen University), in Germany, have managed to produce quantum dots out of graphene. And according to the multinational team, these dots offer a bold new promise for quantum computing.
So, what’s new? The researchers discovered that quantum dots made from graphene possess four quantum states at a given energy level, unlike semiconductor quantum dots, which have only two.
Swapping substrates improves edges of graphene nanoribbons - Phys.org - 8/01/2016 Miniscule ribbons of graphene are highly sought-after building blocks for semiconductor devices because of their predicted electronic properties. But making these nanostructures has remained a challenge. Now, a team of researchers from China and Japan have devised a new method to make the structures in the lab. Their findings appear in the current issue of Applied Physics Letters.
"Many studies have predicted the properties of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag edges," said Guangyu Zhang, senior author on the study. "But in experiments it's very hard to actually make this material."
Previously, researchers have tried to make graphene nanoribbons by placing sheets of graphene over a layer of silica and using atomic hydrogen to etch strips with zigzag edges, a process known as anisotropic etching. These edges are crucial to modulate the nanoribbon's properties.
But this method only worked well to make ribbons that had two or more graphene layers. Irregularities in silica created by electronic peaks and valleys roughen its surface, so creating precise zigzag edges on graphene monolayers was a challenge. Zhang and his colleagues from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for Nanomaterials and Nanodevices, and the Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter teamed up with Japanese collaborators from the National Institute for Materials Science to solve the problem.
They replaced the underlying silica with boron nitride, a crystalline material that's chemically sluggish and has a smooth surface devoid of electronic bumps and pits. By using this substrate and the anisotropic etching technique, the group successfully made graphene nanoribbons that were only one-layer thick, and had well-defined zigzag edges.
Simulation, Experiment Unite Graphene and Plasmonics - Photonics - 7/29/2016 The work of Kildishev and his colleagues deals with a fundamental problem in graphene research: the difficulty of fabricating high-quality, large-area graphene films. Until graphene production improves, Kildishev and his team are leveraging simulation tools to perform design and optimization of devices made from graphene.
The Purdue team is continuing its simulation work to understand and predict the behavior of graphene so that it may be put to use in devices such as photovoltaics, optical modulators and — one day — flexible touchscreens. They are looking to make graphene nanoribbons so that they can begin fabricating a preliminary light modulation device.
Two-dimensional materials 'as revolutionary as graphene' - Phys.org - 7/29/2016 Writing in Science, leading 2D materials researchers estimate that research on combining materials of just a few atomic layers in stacks called heterostructures is at the same stage that graphene was 10 years ago, and can expect the same rapid progress graphene has experienced.
Scientists find a way of acquiring graphene-like films from salts to boost nanoelectronics - Science Daily - 7/29/2016 Scientists have found a way to acquire 2-D graphene-like layers of various salts. Because to the unique properties of two-dimensional materials, this opens up great prospects for nanoelectronics. Using computer modeling they have found the exact parameters, under which certain salts undergo graphitization -- rearrangement of atoms in the slab with further decomposition of a crystal into 2-D layers.The received data will soon be used to acquire these layers experimentally.
Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering - Science Advances - 7/22/2016 As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (EF) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule’s vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10-11 M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps.
Relativistic electrons trapped within graphene quantum dots - Physics World - 7/11/2016 Images of relativistic electrons trapped in graphene quantum dots have been taken by physicists in the US and Japan. The ability to confine and control electrons in such a way could play an important role in developing graphene-based nanoscale devices and could also provide a better understanding of these exotic "Dirac fermions".
Serial crystallography enhanced by graphene - Chemistry World - 6/13/2016 Introducing graphene into microfluidic devices can make it easier to study proteins at an atomic level, scientists in the US have shown. Devices that are thinner and interfere less with the measurements allow larger and more intricate protein structures to be resolved using techniques that rely on probing thousands of microcrystals.
A thin graphene layer improves the crystallography signal-to-noise ratio and acts as a barrier, protecting the protein crystals from dehydrating.
Researchers discover new way to turn electricity into light, using graphene - MIT News - 6/13/2016 "Graphene has this ability to trap light, in modes we call surface plasmons," explains Kaminer, who is the paper’s lead author. Plasmons are a kind of virtual particle that represents the oscillations of electrons on the surface. The speed of these plasmons through the graphene is "a few hundred times slower than light in free space," he says.
This effect dovetailed with another of graphene’s exceptional characteristics: Electrons pass through it at very high speeds, up to a million meters per second, or about 1/300 the speed of light in a vacuum. That meant that the two speeds were similar enough that significant interactions might occur between the two kinds of particles, if the material could be tuned to get the velocities to match.
That combination of properties — slowing down light and allowing electrons to move very fast — is "one of the unusual properties of graphene," says Soljacic. That suggested the possibility of using graphene to produce the opposite effect: to produce light instead of trapping it. "Our theoretical work shows that this can lead to a new way of generating light," he says
Graphite makes good metallic contact for graphene - NanoTechWeb - 6/10/2016 Single-crystal graphite appears to be a better contact material for graphene than conventional metals. So say researchers at Columbia University in New York who have found that the contact resistivity of the graphite–graphene interface can be as low as 6.6 Oµm2. A reduced contact resistance could not only be useful for improving devices made from the carbon sheet but also for fundamental physics studies on the material.
Now Graphene Can Have a Tunable, Stable Bandgap - IEEE Spectrum - 6/09/2016 Now researchers at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have developed a new technique for nitrogen doping of graphene that can control exactly where the dopants are placed in the graphene lattice. This precise localizing of the dopants reduces defects and provides greater material stability.
"Incorporation of nitrogen into the graphene lattice has been accomplished with other techniques including during the growth and post growth annealing processes," explained Cory Cress, a researcher with NRL and a co-author of the papers, in an e-mail interview with IEEE Spectrum. “However, the technique we have employed is different in that we can control where the dopants are incorporated, both spatially and their depth (if using a multiply layer graphene sample). In general, the substitution of an impurity, like nitrogen, without additional defects is ideal for modifying the bandstructure since it best maintains the fundamental transport properties of graphene."
Graphene Patterned at Room Temp - EETimes - 5/05/2016 Graphene is easily grown with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foil, but a simple way of etching out the necessary circuit patterns and transferring them to a non-metallic substrate has eluded engineers. Now researchers at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) claim to have a one-step room temperature process for quickly patterning and transferring graphene circuits to flexible substrates using a simple shadow mask.
Graphene Oxide Triggers Autophagy To Clear Toxic PCBs - Asian Scientist - 4/25/2016 A team led by Professor Xu An from the Institute of Technical Biology & Agriculture Engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences, has shown that graphene oxide could be useful in removing toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the environment. Their findings were published in Environmental Science & Technology.
Graphene doped with hydrogen reveals its magnetism - Physicsworld.com - 4/22/2016 Hydrogen atoms can induce magnetism in graphene and be used to create a uniform magnetic order across the 1D material. That is the finding of researchers in Spain, France and Egypt, who also demonstrated that it is possible to atomically manipulate hydrogen atoms on graphene to control the local magnetic state.
Highlights from the Graphene Flagship - Nanowerk - 4/20/2016 Graphene and Neurons - the best of friends; Pressure sensing with Graphene; quite a squeeze; Frictionless Graphene; Graphene Kayak; Graphene mass production using kitchen blender approach; Flexible displays that can be rolled up in your pocket; Fibre-optics data boost from graphene; Rechargeable batteries with graphene.
Scientists Finally Made Carbyne—a Material Stronger Than Graphene—That Lasts - Gizmodo - 4/13/2016 Several years ago, scientists calculated the properties of an exotic form of carbon—called Carbyne—and found that it promised more strength and stiffness than any other known material. Now, it’s finally been made in a stable form inside an Austrian lab.
Researchers from the University of Vienna in Austria report in Nature Materials that they’ve managed to synthesize the material far more successfully than ever before. It’s proved so tricky in the past because Carbyne is a long one-dimensional chain of carbon atoms linked one to the other. Its structure makes it highly reactive, which means that as quickly as it’s manufactured, it’s destroyed.
But the Austrian researchers have found a way to make it while avoiding such destruction. They took two sheets of graphene, laid them on top of each other, then rolled the whole thing up to create a double-walled tube. Think of it as a graphene Thermos. Then, they synthesized the Carbyne inside the tube, providing a protective casing which allowed the material to remain intact.
The record for stringing together carbon atoms like this in the past had been 100 in a row; now, the team can put 6,400 atoms together, and have them remain in a chain for as long as they want. That is, of course, as long as they sit inside the carbon Thermos. It remains to be seen how useful Carbyne will be whilst wrapped up, but for now it’s the best that researchers can achieve.
Graphene Plasmons Explored for Nanoscale Control of IR Light - Photonics - 3/31/2016 When light couples to charge oscillations in graphene the result is plasmon — a mixture of light and charge oscillations — which can be squeezed into miniscule volumes that are millions of times smaller than in conventional dielectric optical cavities.
Researchers from the nanoGUNE Cooperative Research Center (CIC), in collaboration with ICFO (The Institute of Photonic Sciences) in Barcelona, and Cambridge, Mass.-based graphene company Graphenea, say they have visualized, for the first time, the creation of such plasmonic systems, and have disentangled the individual plasmonic modes and separated them into two different classes.
Using a near-field microscope to put theory to praxis, the researchers identified the two classes of plasmon as sheet and edge modes, which propagate along the sheet or along the sheet edges, respectively. The edge plasmons are unique for their ability to channel electromagnetic energy in one dimension.
Graphene Nanoribbons—It's All About the Edges-Laboratory Design - 3/24/2016 As reported by the journal Nature in its latest issue, researchers from Empa, the Max Planck Institute in Mainz and the Technical University of Dresden have for the first time succeeded in producing graphene nanoribbons with perfect zigzag edges from molecules. Electrons on these zigzag edges exhibit different (and coupled) rotational directions ("spin"). This could make graphene nanoribbons the material of choice for electronics of the future, so-called spintronics.
Researchers develop a technology to enable unzipping of the graphene plane - Phys.org - 3/23/2016 Professor Sang-Wook Kim's research team of KASIT's Material Science and Engineering Department has developed a technique, which enables unzipping of the graphene plane without uncontrollable damage. The research findings were published online on the January 22 issue of Nature Communications.
Wrinkles and Crumples Make Graphene Better-Lab Manager - 3/23/2016 Crumple a piece of paper and it’s probably destined for the trash can, but new research shows that repeatedly crumpling sheets of the nanomaterial graphene can actually enhance some of its properties. In some cases, the more crumpled the better.
The research by engineers from Brown University shows that graphene, wrinkled and crumpled in a multi-step process, becomes significantly better at repelling water—a property that could be useful in making self-cleaning surfaces. Crumpled graphene also has enhanced electrochemical properties, which could make it more useful as electrodes in batteries and fuel cells.
The results are published in the journal Advanced Materials.
How infrared light can be captured by graphene nanostructures-Phys.org - 3/22/2016 Researchers from CIC nanoGUNE, in collaboration with ICFO and Graphenea, have demonstrated how infrared light can be captured by nanostructures made of graphene. This happens when light couples to charge oscillations in the graphene. The resulting mixture of light and charge oscillations, called plasmon, can be squeezed into record-small volumes millions of times smaller than in conventional dielectric optical cavities. This process has been visualized by the researchers for the first time with the help of a state-of the-art, near-field microscope and explained by theory. The researchers identified two types of plasmons—edge and sheet modes—propagating either along the sheet or along the sheet edges. The edge plasmons are unique for their ability to channel electromagnetic energy in one dimension.
The work, reported in Nature Photonics, opens new opportunities for ultra-small and efficient photodetectors, sensors and other photonic and optoelectronic nanodevices.
Manchester University Scientists Observe Self-Rotating Graphene - AZO Nano - 3/11/2016 The question at the University of Manchester regarding interaction in two-dimensional (2D) materials is whether self-rotation occurs in heterostructures if various crystals are clubbed together, such as graphene on boron nitride. It was observed that perfect stacking between boron nitride and graphene occurs, and when the heterostructural layers are disturbed, the crystals undergo self-rotation and retain the ideal configuration. This effect was known at the nanoscale, but it was not seen on larger scales until the recent findings, published in Nature Communications.
Detecting hot electrons in real time with a graphene-semiconductor catalytic nanodiode - Nanowerk - 3/10/2016 In a new study (Nano Letters, "Graphene-Semiconductor Catalytic Nanodiodes for Quantitative Detection of Hot Electrons Induced by a Chemical Reaction"), the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) team working under the Center’s group leader, Professor PARK Jeong Young, created a catalytic nanodiode composed of a single layer of graphene and titanium film (TiO2) that enabled the detection of hot electrons on platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs). This breakthrough research developed a catalytic nanodiode that allowed the team to observe in real time the flow of hot electrons generated by chemical reactions.
Since hot electrons are created when excess energy from the surface of a chemical reaction is permitted to dissipate in femtosecond, they are deemed as an indicator for the catalystic activity. However, the quick thermalization of hot electrons makes the direct detection of hot electrons quite difficult for clarifying the electronic effect on catalytic activity on metal nanoparticles.
In this study, researchers extracted ‘hot carriers’ from a metal catalyst using a graphene-semiconductor junction.
Electricity can flow through graphene at high frequencies without energy loss-Phys.org - 3/04/2016 Electrical signals transmitted at high frequencies lose none of their energy when passed through the 'wonder material' graphene, a study led by Plymouth University has shown.
Molecular graphene architectures see the light - Nanowerk - 3/02/2016 Now researchers from the Departments of Physics and Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), from the Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research (Mainz, Germany) and the Université de Strasbourg (France) have modified dye molecules in such a manner that allows them to serve as building blocks of self-assembling molecular networks (Nature Communications, "Photoresponse of supramolecular self-assembled networks on graphene-diamond interfaces").
Tiny filters, big news: Novel process uses graphene and boron nitride monolayers to separate hydrogen ion isotopes-Phys.org - 2/26/2016 Conventional membranes used for sieving atomic and molecular species cannot scale to the subatomic level, making them unable to separate hydrogen isotope ions (protons, deuterons and tritons). At the same time, there are no current methods of directly separating these isotopes, and current approaches are extremely energy-intensive and therefore expensive – sometimes prohibitively so. Recently, however, scientists at the University of Manchester (UK) demonstrated a novel, scalable and highly competitive approach that uses monolayers of graphene and boron nitride as extremely fine sieves to separate hydrogen isotopes. Moreover, in addition to the new approach's simple and robust sieving mechanism, it offers straightforward setups and the need for only water as input without requiring additional chemical compounds.
Graphene slides smoothly across gold-Phys.org - 2/25/2016 In future, graphene could be used as an extremely thin coating, resulting in almost zero energy loss between mechanical parts. This is based on the exceptionally high lubricity—or so-called superlubricity—of modified carbon in the form of graphene. Applying this property to mechanical and electromechanical devices would not only improve energy efficiency but also considerably extend the service life of the equipment.
3D printed graphene aerogels take shape-Chemistry World - 2/25/2016 Lin and his colleagues’ technique allowed them to overcome these problems. They mixed graphene oxide with water and printed it out on a surface at -25°C. Each layer froze on printing, enabling them to build up a graphene oxide structure supported by ice. However they found that when depositing the graphene oxide suspension onto the frozen structure, the unfrozen material melted the already frozen surface. This allowed the layers to mix freely and refreeze, forming hydrogen bonds and improving the aerogel’s structural integrity. By using a second printer nozzle filled with pure water they could also create complex structures, as the water formed an ice support, upon which they could layer the graphene oxide suspension.
The resulting aerogel was finished by freeze-drying it in liquid nitrogen to expel the water, before thermally reducing it to graphene. With their technique the researchers were able to create aerogels with densities ranging from 0.5 to 10mg/cm3, which also had good electrical conductivity and high compressibility.
An exception to Ohm’s Law? Graphene makes electrons act like a viscous liquid with ‘negative resistance’ - ExtremeTech - 2/25/2016 Two teams of physicists just found evidence that graphene makes electrons act less like charge carriers moving at relativistic speeds and more like a viscous liquid, flowing against the electrical current in eddies and whirlpools like those at a river’s edge. That property makes electrons flow against electrical polarity in a phenomenon that physicists are calling “negative resistance,” and as Nature Physics and Science report, we’ve finally seen it happen at room temperature.
Magnetoelectric Oxide Gates to Enable Graphene Spintronics-Materials Views - 2/24/2016 The same properties of graphene that allow spins to transport without disruption also make it difficult to manipulate spins in circuits when needed. This manipulation is a key feature of a hypothetical device called a graphene spin field effect transistor (spin-FET, Figure 1). Recent work led by physicists at North Carolina State University (NCSU) has demonstrated that simple oxide films integrated with graphene can overcome this barrier by allowing high fidelity electrical control of magnetic interactions with the charges in graphene. In a Rapid Research Letter in Physica Status Solidi, Stuart et al. report on the creation of films of the classic magnetoelectric oxide Cr2O3 on top of graphene and graphite substrates.
Researcher's chiral graphene stacks break new ground-Phys.org - 2/23/2016
Hands and feet are two examples of chiral objects – non-superimposable mirror images of each other. One image is distinctly "left-handed," while the other is "right-handed." A simple drinking glass and a ball are achiral, meaning the object and its mirror image look exactly the same.
In science, chirality is a fundamental concept in a number of disciplines, including medicine. In the 1950s and early '60s, pregnant women were prescribed the sedative thalidomide, but the drug produced horrific birth defects in thousands of children around the world. The reason: The thalidomide molecule is chiral, and while the left-hand molecule was indeed a sedative, the right-hand one was found later to produce fetal abnormalities.
Until very recently, similar "handedness" in large area films with atomic scale precision hadn't been investigated. The research team of Cornell's Jiwoong Park has broken new ground in this area, developing a chiral atomically thin film only 2-atoms-thick, through circular stacking of graphene.
This material is of interest in the fields of polarization optics, stereochemistry, optoelectronics and spin transport electronics, or spintronics.
Graphene's Role as a Superconductor Just Got Better-IEEE Spectrum - 2/22/2016 Graphene is an amazing conductor. The transport of electrons through graphene nanoribbons has even surpassed what scientists thought were the theoretical limits for the material—so much so that electrons moving through it seem to behave almost like photons.
Graphene’s amazing properties as a conductor has inspired some researchers to explore whether the single-atom-thick sheets of carbon could also be made into superconductors. Last year, an international research team from Canada and Germany was able to demonstrate that graphene can be made to behave that way when it’s doped with lithium atoms.
Now researchers in Japan (from Tohoku University and the University of Tokyo) have developed a new method for coaxing graphene to behave as a superconductor that has some important and distinctive differences from the previous research by the Canadian and German researchers.
“The most decisive difference is that we have observed zero electrical resistivity while the Canada and German team has not,” said Takashi Takahashi, a professor at Tohoku University and leader of the research, in an e-mail interview with IEEE Spectrum...
Promising results obtained with a new and simpler way to fabricate graphene component - R&D - 2/19/2016 "This is the first time when gallium selenide is used with graphene. This kind of new heterojunctions will be important in future as conventional heterojunctions are already vital part of current semiconductor industry forming the basis for example for lasers and transistors," explains Juha Riikonen, head of the research group.
Imaging cyclotron electron orbits in graphene - Nanotechweb - 2/12/2016 When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to a graphene sheet, electrons in the material move in circular cyclotron orbits. These circular orbits have been imaged for the first time by researchers at Harvard University in the US and the National Institute for Materials Science in Japan. Imaging electron motion in this way could help in the design of better devices made from atomically thin nanostructures.
Scientists discover electrons moving like honey in graphene - Phys.org - 2/12/2016 Electrons which act like slow-pouring honey have been observed for the first time in graphene, prompting a new approach to fundamental physics.
Electrons are known to move through metals like bullets being reflected only by imperfections, but in graphene they move like in a very viscous liquid, University of Manchester researchers have found.
Physicists Create Artificial ‘Graphene’ - the free weekly - 2/04/2016 An international group of physicists led by the University of Arkansas has created an artificial material with a structure comparable to graphene, a micro two-dimensional material that is highly conductive.
The discovery, published in Physical Review Letters, gives researchers the ability to create graphene-like structures for other elements.
"We’ve basically created the first artificial graphene-like structure with transition metal atoms in place of carbon atoms," said Jak Chakhalian, professor of physics and director of the Artificial Quantum Materials Laboratory at the U of A.
Graphene is strong, but is it tough? - Phys.org - 2/04/2016 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed the first known statistical theory for the toughness of polycrystalline graphene, which is made with chemical vapor deposition, and found that it is indeed strong (albeit not quite as strong as pristine monocrystalline graphene), but more importantly, its toughness—or resistance to fracture—is quite low. Their study, "Toughness and strength of nanocyrstalline graphene," was published recently in Nature Communications.
"This material certainly has very high strength, but it has particularly low toughness—lower than diamond and a little higher than pure graphite," said Berkeley Lab scientist Robert Ritchie. "Its extremely high strength is very impressive, but we can't necessarily utilize that strength unless it has resistance to fracture."
Although pure monocrystalline graphene may have fewer defects, the authors studied polycrystalline graphene as it is more inexpensively and commonly synthesized with chemical vapor deposition. Ritchie is aware of only one experimental measurement of the material's toughness.
"Our numbers were consistent with that one experimental number," he said. "In practical terms these results mean that a soccer ball can be placed on a single sheet of monocrystalline graphene without breaking it. What object can be supported by a corresponding sheet of polycrystalline graphene? It turns out that a soccer ball is much too heavy, and polycrystalline graphene can support only a ping pong ball. Still remarkable for a one-atom thick material, but not quite as breathtaking anymore."
Pocket production of graphene for electronics - Chemistry World - 2/01/2016 A new, scalable way of producing a type of bilayer graphene with potential applications in electronics has been developed by researchers in the US and Asia.1 The technique could potentially allow for tuneable transistors and spectrometers.
In the new work, researchers in the US, China and South Korea folded a copper substrate containing oxygen impurities into a ‘pocket’, allowing gas to enter only through a tiny gap at the edge, before placing the pocket into a CVD chamber. They introduced methane and found that, after six hours, the exterior surface was completely covered with graphene, with a high density of islands of single-crystal, correctly-oriented bilayer graphene. Subsequent experiments and modelling showed that monolayer graphene forms relatively quickly on the outside but, because of the restricted flow to the interior, it forms much more slowly inside the pocket. However, the oxygen impurities on the copper oxidise the methane, leaving carbon atoms on the copper foil. These carbon atoms gradually diffuse through and along the foil, forming a second layer of graphene underneath the first layer on the exterior of the pocket.
Graphene shown to safely interact with neurons in the brain-Phys.org - 1/29/2016 Researchers have successfully demonstrated how it is possible to interface graphene - a two-dimensional form of carbon - with neurons, or nerve cells, while maintaining the integrity of these vital cells. The work may be used to build graphene-based electrodes that can safely be implanted in the brain, offering promise for the restoration of sensory functions for amputee or paralysed patients, or for individuals with motor disorders such as epilepsy or Parkinson's disease.
Masdar Institute, The University of Manchester launch joint graphene research program-Composites World - 1/28/2016 The Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (Masdar City, Abu Dhabi) and The University of Manchester (Manchester, uK) have launched a research collaborative research program covering three projects in graphene and 2D materials. The three projects will focus on composites, sensors and membranes, which will be led by faculty members from both research institutions.
The projects will respectively explore the development of novel low-density graphene-based foams for various engineering applications, inkjet-printed graphene micro-sensors for energy and defense applications and graphene-enabled ion exchange membranes for desalination.
"Graphene has huge potential for applications in a large range of sectors, and we are delighted to be collaborating with The Masdar Institute of Science and Technology on these important areas of research," said James Baker, Graphene business director for The University of Manchester. "The University of Manchester has more than 235 researchers working on graphene and 2D materials and many will now have the opportunity to further their research by working with Masdar. Our partnership with Masdar Institute is crucial to the commercialization of graphene and we look forward to seeing ground-breaking research and into developing exciting applications with potential industrial partners as a result of this activity."
One project seeks to develop novel low-density graphene-based nanocomposite foams for engineering applications that include energy. The second project seeks to develop inexpensive fabrication methods for sensor devices that can operate in challenging environments often associated with high temperature energy and military applications. Other work aims to conduct a systematic study of the potential benefits of graphene-enabled ion exchange membranes for water desalination purposes.
An alternative to platinum: Iron-nitrogen compounds as catalysts in graphene-Phys.org - 1/27/2016 "The purification process enables us now to create catalysts having exclusively FeN4 centres. This allows us to subsequently select compounds to be added afterwards as promoters that further improve the activity level or stability of these catalysts", as Ulrike Kramm summarises her research approach at TU Darmstadt.
Sebastian Fiechter and Peter Bogdanoff are continuing their research at HZB on novel catalysts, especially in regard to hydrogen generation using sunlight. "We can also use the insights into how these metal-N-C catalysts work in our on-going development of catalysing materials for solar-based hydrogen production at HZB," says Fiechter.
Together, the research activities at HZB and TU Darmstadt could enable the development of a complete regenerative energy cycle, using solar hydrogen in low cost fuel cells, thus producing electricity without climate gas emission.
The results have now been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
NIST Team Aims to Develop Graphene Nanopore Sequencing Tech - Genome Web - 1/21/2016 Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have come up with a method for graphene nanopore sequencing that could theoretically have a raw read accuracy as high as 90 percent.
The method, which the team described in the journal Nanoscale last month, takes advantage of the electrical properties of graphene and Watson-Crick base pairing.
Graphene tunes in to new frequency - Manchester 1824 - 1/14/2016 The fascinating electrical properties of graphene have allowed University of Manchester researchers to open up a new area of technology using terahertz lasers.
This could vastly improve scanning systems, replacing X-rays, and also dramatically increase internet bandwidth.
Graphene Flakes Make Laser Neuron Superfast-IEEE Spectrum - 1/12/2016 Tiny flakes of graphene may hold the key to building computer chips that can processes information similar to the way the human brain does—only far faster—potentially leading to everything from better image recognition to control systems for hypersonic aircraft.
Researchers are developing so-called neuromorphic chips consisting of networks of transistors that interact the way human neurons do, allowing them to process analog input, such as visual information, more quickly and accurately than traditional chips can.
One way of building such transistors is to construct them of lasers that rely on an encoding approach called "spiking." Depending on the input, the laser will either provide a brief spike in its output of photons or not respond at all. Instead of using the on or off state of the transistor to represent the 1s and 0s of digital data, these neural transistors rely on the time intervals between spikes.
Box-shaped graphene – a novel nanostructure - nanowerk - 12/11/2016 A scientist from the Institute of Physical Problems named after F. V. Lukin in Zelenograd, Russian Federation, has discovered a previously unknown three-dimensional nanostructure consisting of graphene sheets.
The researcher, Dr. Rostislav Lapshin, a staff scientist at the institute, has reported his findings in the January 1, 2016 edition of Applied Surface Science ("STM observation of a box-shaped graphene nanostructure appeared after mechanical cleavage of pyrolytic graphite").
Electronically connected graphene nanoribbons foresee high-speed electronics-Nanotechnology Now - 1/11/2016 An international research team at Tohoku University's Advanced Institute of Materials Research (AIMR) succeeded in chemically interconnecting chiral-edge graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with zigzag-edge features by molecular assembly, and demonstrated electronic connection between GNRs. The GNRs were interconnected exclusively end to end, forming elbow structures, identified as interconnection points (Fig. 1a).
Electronically connected graphene nanoribbons foresee high-speed electronics: Chemical interconnection bridges electronic properties of graphene-nanoribbons with zigzag-edge features.
See this amazing photo of a single protein on a graphene surface - The Next Web - 1/10/2016 Researchers from Switzerland and Germany released a report detailing how they were able to take a photo of a single protein molecule on an "ultra clean" graphene surface. Using low-energy electron holography, the scientists were able to capture the shape of proteins without degradation.
To put that in context: the camera was able to capture an object just a few nanometers in length.
Identifying the structural details of single proteins could mean a breakthrough in biological analysis. Now that scientists have a possibly reliable method to take pictures of individual proteins that have been difficult to capture.
This could lead to important things, including potential breakthroughs in treatments for protein-related diseases like Alzheimer’s.
2D islands in graphene hold promise for future device fabrication-Phys.org - 12/22/2015 In what could prove to be a significant advance in the fabrication of graphene-based nanodevices, a team of Berkeley Lab researchers has discovered a new mechanism for assembling two-dimensional (2D) molecular "islands" that could be used to modify graphene at the nanometer scale. These 2D islands are comprised of F4TCNQ molecules that trap electrical charge in ways that are potentially useful for graphene-based electronics.
Carbon Sciences Funds UCSB Research into Graphene Optical Modulators-Photonics - 12/17/2015 Carbon Sciences Inc. will fund R&D at the University of California, Santa Barbara, of a graphene-based optical modulator, a fiber optic component intended to address data center bottlenecks and enhance cloud computing.
The company believes that new materials such as graphene must be developed to increase data speeds for high-resolution video on demand, high-fidelity music streaming, high-volume e-commerce and other cloud-based services.
For optical data to be transmitted through a fiber optic cable, laser light must be modulated to encode specific digital data. The faster the light beam can be modulated, the more data can be encoded and transmitted. Graphene fosters extreme high speed and tunable conductivity. Changing the conductivity of graphene also changes its optical properties, changing the light passing through it to encode digital data.
Graphene nanoribbons show metallic properties - The Engineer - 12/16/2015 Researchers from Aalto University in Finland have developed graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that exhibit metallic properties and could be used in future electronic devices.
GNRs have been suggested as ideal materials for nanoelectronics, where wiring is reduced to the atomic scale. The GNRs created by the team at Aalto, described in the journal Nature Communications Science, are just five carbon atoms wide and one atom thick. Unlike other GNRs, they are not semiconducting, which means they could potentially be used as metallic interconnects in future microprocessors.
Synopsis: Giving Graphene a Good Stretch-Physics - 12/08/2015 A specially shaped ribbon of single-layer carbon can produce a strong magnetic-like effect within the material when it is pulled on its ends. When graphene is strained, its electrons move as if in a strong magnetic field. This so-called pseudomagnetic effect opens up new possibilities in graphene electronics, but so far, the induced fields have been highly localized in space. A new theoretical study explains how to shape a flat graphene ribbon so that pulling on its ends produces a uniform pseudomagnetic field.
In 2010, physicists discovered that stretching the two-dimensional lattice of graphene into a triangular bubble shape caused the conduction electrons to turn in a circle, as they would in a magnetic field. These pseudomagnetic fields are strongly peaked with magnitudes as high as 300 tesla—well beyond what can be attained with stable laboratory magnets. The induced fields, if made more spatially uniform, could enable "valleytronics," in which electrons separate into distinct valley-shaped energy bands.
Small Tweaks to Its Recipe and "White Graphene" Could Change Electronics-IEEE Spectrum - 12/08/2015 Now researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a process for producing a nearly perfect single layer of hexagonal boron nitride—dubbed "white graphene"—that the researchers believe could be a game changer for the use of the material in electronic applications.
In research published in the journal Chemistry of Materials, the ORNL researchers followed traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) steps, in which gaseous reactants are introduced into a furnace to form a film on a metal substrate that’s usually made of copper. However, they added a little something to the recipe that provided a more gentle and controllable way to introduce the reactants into the furnace and took better advantage of the conditions inside the furnace.
"I just thought carefully beforehand and was curious. For example, I remind myself that there are many conditions in this experiment that can be adjusted and could make a difference," said ORNL’s Yijing Stehle, postdoctoral associate and lead author of a paper, in a press release. "Whenever I see non-perfect results, I do not count them as another failure but, instead, another condition adjustment to be made. This ‘failure’ may become valuable."
The result of finding value in failure was a "white graphene" that has lived up to the material’s previously unachieved theoretical performance potential. What this means is that if white graphene were used as a substrate material for its carbon analogue, the electron mobility of the combined materials would be a thousand times higher than that of graphene on other substrate materials.
"Imagine batteries, capacitors, solar cells, video screens and fuel cells as thin as a piece of paper," said Stehle in the press release. "Imagine your message being sent thousands of times faster."
Graphene hybrid interacts with electromagnetic radiation-The Engineer - 12/02/2015
New research led by Exeter University has shown how the unique properties of graphene can be used to create artificial structures that can control and manipulate electromagnetic radiation over different wavelengths.
A team of international scientists, led by Exeter’s Prof Geoff Nash have engineered a new hybrid structure – or metamaterial – that is claimed to possess specific characteristics that are not found in natural materials.
According to the university, the team combined nano-ribbons of graphene, in which electrons are able to oscillate backwards and forwards, together with a split ring resonator, which is a type of antenna.
Careful design of these two elements leads to a system that interacts strongly with electromagnetic radiation. In these experiments the team used light with very long wavelengths to show that these new structure can be used as a type of optical switch to interrupt, and turn on and off, a beam of this light very quickly.
The collaborative international research included Dr Sergey Mikhailov at the University of Augsburg, Germany, and Prof Jérôme Faist at ETH Zurich.
New research exploits extraordinary properties of graphene-Phys.org - 11/30/15 Innovative new research led by the University of Exeter has demonstrated how the extraordinary properties of graphene can be exploited to create artificial structures that can be used to control and manipulate electromagnetic radiation over a wide range of wavelengths.
A team of international scientists, led by Professor Geoff Nash from the University of Exeter, have engineered a remarkable new hybrid structure, or metamaterial, that possesses specific characteristics that are not found in natural materials.
The collaborative team combined nano-ribbons of graphene, in which electrons are able to oscillate backwards and forwards, together with a type of antenna called a split ring resonator.
Careful design of these two elements leads to a system which strongly interacts with electromagnetic radiation. In these experiments the team used light with very long wavelengths, far beyond what the human eye can see, to show that these new structure can be used as a type of optical switch to interrupt, and turn on and off, a beam of this light very quickly.
The collaborative international research, including experts from the University of Exeter, England, and teams led by Dr Sergey Mikhailov at the University of Augsburg, Germany, and Professor Jérôme Faist at ETH Zurich, is published in respected scientific journal, Nature Communications.
Trapping and Steering Light at the Surface of Graphene-Novus Light Technologies Today - 11/26/2015 Researchers from the University of Exeter (UK) and the ICFO Institute in Barcelona (Spain) developed a new technique for trapping light at the surface of graphene using laser pulses. What is more, the scientists were able to steer the trapped light across the graphene surface without any nanodevices.
The pioneering study, which gives researchers a new and better understanding of graphene and how the material interacts with light, could lead to advances in miniaturized optical circuits, graphene-based electronics and faster Internet. Meanwhile, the breakthrough could enable a device to scan a piece of graphene and reveal its properties, according to the University.
"We have developed a technique to couple visible light to the surface electron density vibrations in graphene," says Dr Tom Constant, lead author of the research paper "All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene," published on Nature Physics online. "Under certain conditions the light ‘binds’ to the surface electrons, traveling along the surface as a ‘surface plasmon,’ which is part light and part an electron plasma wave." His team achieved this by using laser pulses to mix two different colors of laser pulse together in a process called "nonlinear wave-mixing." This mixing of the two visible colors produces a new light field that can couple into the surface and travel, trapped, along its surface as a surface plasmon.
Physicists develop new technique to fathom 'smart' materials with graphene-Nanowerk - 11/26/2015 Can we design smart materials with entirely new properties? A highly promising way of doing this is to stack extremely thin layers – just one atom thick – into a three-dimensional material; a sort of sandwich cake. Interestingly enough, the properties of these composite materials are not only determined by the properties of the individual layers. The interaction between the layers also plays a significant role. Consequently, such a layered material can have very different properties than you might expect based on the combination of properties of the individual layers; the whole is more than the sum of the parts. Physicists from FOM and Leiden University have developed a technique that allows them to study the interaction between the material layers.
A new way to make X-rays with graphene-Nanowerk - 11/24/2015 The most widely used technology for producing X-rays – used in everything from medical and dental imaging, to testing for cracks in industrial materials – has remained essentially the same for more than a century. But based on a new analysis by researchers at MIT, that might potentially change in the next few years.
The finding, based on a new theory backed by exact simulations, shows that a sheet of graphene – a two-dimensional form of pure carbon – could be used to generate surface waves called plasmons when the sheet is struck by photons from a laser beam. These plasmons in turn could be triggered to generate a sharp pulse of radiation, tuned to wavelengths anywhere from infrared light to X-rays.
What’s more, the radiation produced by the system would be of a uniform wavelength and tightly aligned, similar to that from a laser beam. The team says this could potentially enable lower-dose X-ray systems in the future, making them safer. The new work is reported this week in the journal Nature Photonics ("Towards graphene plasmon-based free-electron infrared to X-ray sources"), in a paper by MIT professors Marin Soljacic and John Joannopoulos and postdocs Ido Kaminer, Liang Jie Wong (now at the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology), and Ognjen Ilic.
Soljacic says that there is growing interest in finding new ways of generating sources of light, especially at scales that could be incorporated into microchips or that could reduce the size and cost of the high-intensity beams used for basic scientific and biomedical research. Of all the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation commonly used for applications, he says, "coherent X-rays are particularly hard to create." They also have the highest energy. The new system could, in principle, create ultraviolet light sources on a chip and table-top X-ray devices that could produce the sorts of beams that now require huge, multimillion-dollar particle accelerators.
Properties of graphene memory uncovered by Korean researchers-Korea Times - 11/19/2015 "Because a graphene oxide thin film is made of carbon and oxygen, which are vulnerable to electron beams, it is difficult to observe by raising acceleration voltage of an ordinary transmission electron microscope," Jeong said. "We have discovered the unknown mechanism by introducing a cross-section transmission electron microscope, which is optimized for graphene oxide thin film."
Forget Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes, Get Ready for Diamond Nanothread-MIT Technology Review - 11/19/2015 Now there is a new kid on the carbon block. Last month, a team at Pennsylvania State University and elsewhere announced they had created another type of carbon that takes the form of a one-dimensional diamond crystal capped with hydrogen. They call this new material diamond nanothread.
That caused a flurry of excitement and raised some interesting questions. Materials scientists are fascinated by the potential properties of a diamond nanothread and its applications. But one fear is that such a thread would be so brittle that it would shatter like glass under any kind of load, a property that would severely limit its use.
Today, we get some new insight into diamond nanothreads thanks to the work of Haifei Zhan at Queensland University of Technology in Australia and a few pals. These guys have modeled the threads using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. And they conclude that the material could be more versatile than anyone thought. There are tentative signs that diamond nanothread could be a new a wonder material in its own right.
The Penn State team manufactured the nanothread from benzene molecules, simple rings of carbon atoms. It’s not hard to see how a stack of these could bond in a way that forms a thread.
Electron partitioning process in graphene observed, a world first-Eureka Alert - 11/18/2015 A group of researchers from Osaka University, the University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, and the National Institute for Materials Science precisely examined current-fluctuation ("shot noise") in the graphene p-n junction in the Quantum Hall (QH) regime and succeeded in observing electron partitioning taking place on the region along the p-n junction as current fluctuation.
Pioneering Research Boosts Graphene Revolution-Photonics Online - 11/17/2015 Dr Constant and his colleagues used pulses of light to be able to trap the light on the surface of commercially-available graphene. When trapped, the light converts into a quasi-particle called a ‘surface plasmon’, a mixture of both light and the graphene’s electrons.
Additionally, the team have demonstrated the first example of being able to steer the plasmons around the surface of the graphene, without the need to manufacture complicated nanoscale systems. The ability both to trap light at a surface, and direct it easily, opens up new opportunities for a number of electronic-based devices, as well as help to bridge the gap between the electronics and light.
Dr Constant said: "Computers than can use light as part of their infrastructure have the potential to show significant improvement. Any advance that reveals more about light’s interaction with graphene-based electronics will surely benefit the computers or smartphones of the future."
New technique traps light at graphene surface using only pulses of laser light-Phys.org - 11/16/2015 Pioneering new research by the University of Exeter could pave the way for miniaturised optical circuits and increased internet speeds, by helping accelerate the 'graphene revolution'.
Physicists from the University of Exeter in collaboration with the ICFO Institute in Barcelona have used a ground-breaking new technique to trap light at the surface of the wonder material graphene using only pulses of laser light.
Crucially, the team of scientists have also been able to steer this trapped light across the surface of the graphene, without the need for any nanoscale devices. This dual breakthrough opens up a host of opportunities for advances in pivotal electronic products, such as sensors and miniaturised integrated circuits.
The new research features in the latest online edition of the respected scientific journal, Nature Physics
Imitating synapses of the human brain with graphene could lead to smarter electronics-Nanowerk - 11/11/2015 The researchers created an artificial synapse out of aluminum oxide and twisted bilayer graphene. By applying different electric voltages to the system, they found they could control the reaction intensity of the receiving "neuron." The team says their novel dynamic system could aid in the development of biology-inspired electronics capable of learning and self-healing.
The New Wrinkle in Graphene Is Wrinkles-IEEE Spectrum - 10/27/2015 One of the holy grails of graphene research has been a method for achieving wafer-scale growth of wrinkle-free single-crystal monolayer graphene on a silicon wafer.
Now researchers at the RIKEN research institute in Japan have discovered that the wrinkles in graphene may be their most attractive feature.
In research published in the journal Nature Communications, the RIKEN scientists discovered that the wrinkles found in graphene create unique electronic qualities, specifically a one-dimensional electron confinement. This restriction of electron movement results in a junction-like structure that changes from a zero-gap conductor to a semiconductor and back to zero-gap conductor.
The other revelation yielded by this research is that it’s possible to manipulate the wrinkles to change graphene’s band gap using mechanical methods rather than chemical techniques.
Forget graphene, 2D laser uses tungsten disulphide-Electronics Weekly - 10/21/2015 Berkeley Lab scientists have turned to two-dimensional tungsten disulphide to make a disc resonator based laser.
Antibody-coated Reduced Graphene Oxide Films Efficiently Capture Tumor Cells-medGadget - 10/20/2015 An extremely sensitive and selective method using graphene films to mimic the cell microenvironment could enhance capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Reporting in the upcoming issue of Advanced Materials, scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences showed that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films, which have been coated with antibodies, can efficiently capture CTCs from whole blood samples.
High-speed march through a layer of graphene-Phys.org - 10/05/2015 In cooperation with the Center for Nano-Optics of Georgia State University in Atlanta, scientists of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität have made simulations of the processes that happen when a layer of carbon atoms is irradiated with strong laser light.
Electrons hit by strong laser pulses change their location on ultrashort timescales, i.e. within a couple of attoseconds (1 as = 10-18 sec). In cooperation with the Center for Nano-Optics of Georgia State University in Atlanta (USA), scientists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (LAP) of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) have made simulations of processes that take place when electrons in a layer of carbon atoms interact with strong laser light. The purpose of these simulations is to gain insight into light-matter-interactions in the microcosm. A better understanding of the underlying physical processes could lead to light-wave driven electronics that would operate at light frequencies, which is a hundred thousand times faster than state-of-the-art technologies. Graphene with its exceptional properties is considered to be very well suited as an example system for prototype experiments.
Big range of behaviors for tiny graphene pores;
Like biological channels, graphene pores are selective for certain types of ions.-MIT News - 10/05/2015 Now researchers at MIT have created tiny pores in single sheets of graphene that have an array of preferences and characteristics similar to those of ion channels in living cells.
Each graphene pore is less than 2 nanometers wide, making them among the smallest pores through which scientists have ever studied ion flow. Each is also uniquely selective, preferring to transport certain ions over others through the graphene layer.
"What we see is that there is a lot of diversity in the transport properties of these pores, which means there is a lot of potential to tailor these pores to different applications or selectivities," says Rohit Karnik, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT.
Karnik says graphene nanopores could be useful as sensors — for instance, detecting ions of mercury, potassium, or fluoride in solution. Such ion-selective membranes may also be useful in mining: In the future, it may be possible to make graphene nanopores capable of sifting out trace amounts of gold ions from other metal ions, like silver and aluminum.
Karnik and former graduate student Tarun Jain, along with Benjamin Rasera, Ricardo Guerrero, Michael Boutilier, and Sean O’Hern from MIT and Juan-Carlos Idrobo from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, publish their results today in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
Electron partitioning process in graphene observed, a world first-Phys.org - 10/02/2015 A group of researchers from Osaka University, The University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, and the National Institute for Materials Science precisely conducted current-fluctuation ("shot noise") measurement in the graphene p–n junction in the quantum Hall regime.
This group found that the non-zero shot noise appears in the bipolar regime of the junction, while the noise is absent in the unipolar regime. This clearly tells that the electron partition process exists at the co-propagating edge states along the p–n junction.
This group's achievement, which is consistent with the theory predicted in 2008, gives microscopic evidence that the edge states are mixed along the junction for the first time. This is an important step toward clarifying the unique nature of the electron partition process in graphene and designing new-type electron interferometer devices using graphene in the quantum Hall regime.
Spin lifetime of electrons in graphene increased by magnetic fields-Phys.org - 10/02/2015 Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology shows that applying a moderate in-plane magnetic field increases spin lifetime of electrons in graphene. The results of this work have profound implications for graphene's use as post-CMOS platform in spintronics, and make an important contribution to the understanding of physics of 2D materials. The findings have recently been published in the prestigious journal Physical Review Letters.
"With this work we have contributed to adding a piece to the puzzle of why graphene is in practice not as good for spintronics a theory predicts. We must continue finding other pieces of this interesting puzzle" says Sergey Kubatkin, professor in quantum device physics, at Chalmers.
Graphene nanoribbons as electronic highways-Nanowerk - 10/01/2015 Physicists at Umeå University have, together with researchers at UC Berkeley, USA, developed a method to synthesise a unique and novel type of material which resembles a graphene nanoribbon but in molecular form. This material could be important for the further development of organic solar cells. The results have been published in the scientific journal ACS Nano ("Fabrication of One-Dimensional Zigzag [6,6]-Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Nanoribbons from Two-Dimensional Nanosheets").
Disappearing carbon circuits on graphene could have security, biomedical uses-R&D Magazine - 9/30/2015 In the television drama "Mission Impossible," instructions for the mission were delivered on an audio tape that destroyed itself immediately after being played. Should that series ever be revived, its producers might want to talk with Georgia Institute of Technology professor Andrei Fedorov about using his "disappearing circuits" to deliver the instructions.
Using carbon atoms deposited on graphene with a focused electron beam process, Fedorov and collaborators have demonstrated a technique for creating dynamic patterns on graphene surfaces. The patterns could be used to make reconfigurable electronic circuits, which evolve over a period of hours before ultimately disappearing into a new electronic state of the graphene. Graphene is also made up of carbon atoms, but in a highly-ordered form.
Graphene band gap heralds new electronics-Chemistry World - 9/29/2015 Scientists in the US and France have produced graphene with a record high band gap of half an electronvolt (0.5 eV), which they claim is sufficient to produce useful graphene transistors. The band gap owes itself to highly periodic bonding on a silicon carbide substrate.
Physicists map the strain in wonder material graphene-Phys.org - 9/29/2015 Using Raman spectroscopy and statistical analysis, the group succeeded in taking nanoscale measurements of the strain present at each pixel on the material's surface. The researchers also obtained a high-resolution view of the chemical properties of the graphene surface.
The results, says Slava V. Rotkin, professor of physics and also of materials science and engineering at Lehigh University, could potentially enable scientists to monitor levels of strain quickly and accurately as graphene is being fabricated. This in turn could help prevent the formation of defects that are caused by strain.
Graphene ‘relative’ discovered-Laboratory News - 9/21/2015 An international team of researchers led by the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) used computer simulations to predict the existence of a new two dimensional carbon material similar to graphene that they call phagraphene.
"Unlike graphene, a hexagonal honeycomb structure with atoms of carbon at its junctions, phagraphene consists of penta-, hexa- and heptagonal carbon rings. Its name comes from a contraction of Penta-Hexa-hepta-graphene," said research leader Professor Artyom Oganov from MIPT.
In the study, published in the journal Nano Letters, the team used an algorithm – known as USPEX – which predicted that the structure of the new material is composed of 5-carbon, 6-carbon and 7-carbon rings. They also found that the electronic structure of phagraphene has distorted Dirac cones – energy bands that form two circular cones, connected with one another at their extremities and seem to have a strange effect on the properties of electrons.
Professor Oganov said: "In phagraphene, due to the different number of atoms in the rings, the Dirac cones are ‘inclined’. That is why the velocity of electrons in it depends on the direction. This is not the case in graphene. It would be very interesting for future practical use to see where it will be useful to vary the electron velocity."
Delicately opening a band gap in graphene enables high-performance transistors-Phys.org - 9/21/2015 Electrons can move through graphene with almost no resistance, a property that gives graphene great potential for replacing silicon in next-generation, highly efficient electronic devices. But currently it's very difficult to control the electrons moving through graphene because graphene has no band gap, which means the electrons don't need to cross any energy barrier in order to conduct electricity. As a result, the electrons are always conducting, all the time, which means that this form of graphene can't be used to build transistors because it has no "off" state. In order to control the electron movement in graphene and enable "off" states in future graphene transistors, graphene needs a non-zero band gap—an energy barrier that can prevent electrons from conducting electricity when desired, making graphene a semiconductor instead of a full conductor.
In a new study, scientists have opened a band gap in graphene by carefully doping both sides of bilayer graphene in a way that avoids creating disorder in the graphene structure. Delicately opening up a band gap in graphene in this way enabled the researchers to fabricate a graphene-based memory transistor with the highest initial program/erase current ratio reported to date for a graphene transistor (34.5 compared to 4), along with the highest on/off ratio for a device of its kind (76.1 compared to 26), while maintaining graphene's naturally high electron mobility (3100 cm2/V·s).
The researchers, led by Professor Young Hee Lee at Sungkyunkwan University and the Institute for Basic Science in Suwon, South Korea, have published their paper on the new method for opening up a band gap in graphene in a recent issue of ACS Nano.
Surfing over simulated ripples in graphene; Scientists from India elucidate the theory governing the characteristics of curved or rippled graphene using a simulation model based on an optical lattice-Eureka Alert
- 9/18/2015 The single-carbon-atom-thick material, graphene, featuring ripples is not easy to understand. Instead of creating such ripples physically, physicists investigating this kind of unusually shaped material rely on a quantum simulator. It is made up of an artificial lattice of light - called ultra-cold optical lattice - akin to eggs held in the cavities of an egg tray. This approach allowed a team of theoretical physicists from India to shed some light - literally and figuratively - on the properties of rippled graphene. These findings have just been published in EPJ B by Tridev Mishra and colleagues from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, in Pilani, India. Ultimately, this work could find applications in novel graphene-based sensors.
Graphene could help make new SI standard for resistance-NanoTechWeb.org - 9/15/2015 The quantum Hall effect provides a universal standard for electrical resistance, based on only two fundamental constants of nature: the Planck constant, h, and the elementary charge, e. At the moment, this standard is realized with excellent accuracy in semiconductor devices made from gallium arsenide, but it requires magnetic fields of around 10 Tesla, ultralow temperatures of around 1 Kelvin and small measurement currents of tens of microamperes. Researchers in France are now saying that devices made from high-quality graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on silicon carbide (SiC) do not require such stringent experimental conditions since they have measured the Hall resistance in these structures with an accuracy to within one part per billion (and below), at temperatures as high as 10 K under magnetic fields of just 3.5 T and measurement currents as high as 0.5 mA
Researchers model graphene/nanotube hybrids to test properties-Phys.org - 9/15/2015 Rice University researchers discovered that putting nanotube pillars between sheets of graphene could create hybrid structures with a unique balance of strength, toughness and ductility throughout all three dimensions.
Carbon nanomaterials are common now as flat sheets, nanotubes and spheres, and they're being eyed for use as building blocks in hybrid structures with unique properties for electronics, heat transport and strength. The Rice team is laying a theoretical foundation for such structures by analyzing how the blocks' junctions influence the properties of the desired materials.
Rice materials scientist Rouzbeh Shahsavari and alumnus Navid Sakhavand calculated how various links, particularly between carbon nanotubes and graphene, would affect the final hybrid's properties in all directions. They found that introducing junctions would add extra flexibility while maintaining almost the same strength when compared with materials made of layered graphene.
Their results appear this week in the journal Carbon.
Novel graphene-gold metasurface architecture provides significant gains in plasmonic detection sensitivity-Nano Werk - 9/14/2015 With increasing sensitivity, electrical, mechanical and optical sensors are able to detect low molecular weight chemical and biological analytes under ever more dilute conditions. At the same time, though, researchers want to keep the sensing process as simple as possible without complex functionalization and complicated preparation steps for the in situ detection.
Researchers have now designed novel graphene-gold metasurface-based biosensing architectures that make possible extreme phase singularities due to a strong field enhancement on the graphene-gold interface. These sensors could find applications in drug screening, water monitoring and cancer diagnostics.
They successfully demonstrated that graphene layers could accommodate surface plasmons and strongly enhance the electric field of the excited surface plasmon waves. Moreover, through the coupling of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles with the surface plasmon waves on the graphene surface, the electric field could be further enhanced.
UBC researchers create first superconducting graphene sheet; Ultra-strong, lithium coated material marks next step toward nanoscale quantum devices-Design Engineering - 9/10/2015 The researchers, which include colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research through the joint Max-Planck-UBC Centre for Quantum Materials, prepared the Li-decorated graphene in ultra-high vacuum conditions and at ultra-low temperatures (5 K or -449 F or -267 C), to achieve the breakthrough.
"This is an amazing material," says Bart Ludbrook, first author on the PNAS paper and a former PhD researcher in Damascelli’s group at UBC. "Decorating monolayer graphene with a layer of lithium atoms enhances the graphene’s electron-phonon coupling to the point where superconductivity can be stabilized."
Phagraphene, a 'relative' of graphene, discovered-Eureka Alert - 9/02/2015 "Unlike graphene, a hexagonal honeycomb structure with atoms of carbon at its junctions, phagraphene consists of penta-, hexa- and heptagonal carbon rings. Its name comes from a contraction of Penta-Hexa-heptA-graphene," says Oganov, head of the MIPT Laboratory of Computer Design.
'Decorated' graphene is a superconductor-NanoTechWeb - 8/31/2015 The "wonder material" graphene has another significant quality to add to its impressive list of electrical and mechanical properties: superconductivity. Physicists in Canada and Germany have shown that graphene turns into a superconductor when doped with lithium atoms – a result that could lead to a new generation of superconducting nanoscale devices.
Dimer structure hangs off graphene edge-NanoTechWeb.org - 8/31/2015 Researchers at the University of Oxford and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK are the first to have observed a carbon dimer structure that "hangs off" the edge of monolayer graphene (a sheet of carbon just one atom thick). Finding this feature, called a Klein Edge Doublet (KLD), predicted to exist in theory, helps us better understand graphene edges, which have novel electronic properties compared to the bulk material lattice.
Laser cutting can tailor graphene properties-Industrial Laser Solutions - 8/28/2015 Porriño, Ponteverde, Spain - Graphene, a single atomic-thick sheet of honeycomb carbon lattice, is a promising material for new electronic circuitry, sensors, and optical communications devices. With unique electronic and optical properties, the material brings a new era of fast, reliable, low-power communication and information processing.
However, there is no large-scale technology to control graphene's properties. Researchers from the Technological Center AIMEN are exploring the use of ultrafast lasers as a tool for graphene processing, where a precisely focused laser beam can be used to tailor the properties of graphene films in finely defined areas to produce distinct behaviors useful for making these devices.
The key is to use short, highly controlled laser pulses to induce chemical changes in the carbon lattice—a single pulse with a duration of several picoseconds. Researchers demonstrate that they can pattern graphene lattice by laser cutting, adding external molecules or binding compounds. With a laser spot focused in areas of one square micron or less, direct writing of devices on graphene can be done with high precision, producing nano-devices with minimal footprint and maximum efficiency.
Successful boron-doping of graphene nanoribbon-Phys.org - 8/27/2015 Physicists at the University of Basel succeed in synthesizing boron-doped graphene nanoribbons and characterizing their structural, electronic and chemical properties. The modified material could potentially be used as a sensor for the ecologically damaging nitrogen oxides, scientists report in the latest issue of Nature Communications.
Physicists build stable diffraction structure in atomically thin graphene-Phys.org - 8/25/2015 Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. In a European collaboration, researchers carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. The presented experiments explore the technical limits of matter wave technologies and respond to a famous Gedanken experiment by Einstein and Bohr of almost 80 years ago. The results are published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
Graphene Helps Gallium Nitride Grow on Silicon for Hi-Tech Applications-AZO Nano - 8/23/2015 In a recent research paper, Graphenea demonstrated the use of graphene as an intermediary layer to grow GaN-on-silicon devices.
Semiconductors fabricated from third-group periodic table elements and nitrogen (III-nitride semiconductors) such as indium nitride (InN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and gallium nitride (GaN), exhibit exotic properties, attracting interest for a number of applications such as high-frequency and high-power transistors, laser diodes, and LEDs.
Applied Physics Express, a publication of IOP Publishing and the Japan Society of Applied Physics, featured the results of the study, which was carried out in partnership with researchers from Ritsumeikan University (Japan), MIT (USA), Dongguk University and Seoul National University (Korea).
Graphene oxide's secret properties revealed at atomic level-Phys.org - 8/21/2015 Now a Northwestern University team has found that graphene oxide's seemingly undesirable defects surprisingly give rise to exciting mechanical properties. Led by Horacio Espinosa, the James N. and Nancy J. Farley Professor in Manufacturing and Entrepreneurship at Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering, the researchers used a unique experimentation and modeling approach to become the first to examine the mechanics of this previously ignored material at the atomic level. What they discovered could potentially unlock the secret to successfully scaling up graphene oxide, an area that has been limited because its building blocks have not been well understood.
"Our team discovered that graphene oxide exhibits remarkable plastic deformation before breaking," said Espinosa. "Graphene is very strong, but it can break suddenly. We found that graphene oxide, however, will deform first before eventually breaking."
Is graphene hydrophobic or hydrophilic? - Nanowerk - 8/17/2015 The National Physical Laboratory's (NPL) Quantum Detection Group has just published research investigating the hydrophobicity of epitaxial graphene, which could be used in the future to better tailor graphene coatings to applications in medicine, electronics and more. Contrary to widely-held beliefs, the findings indicate that graphene's hydrophobicity is strongly thickness-dependent, with single-layer graphene being significantly more hydrophilic than its thicker counterparts.
Graphene Just The Tip Of The 2D Materials Iceberg For Clean Technology-Clean Technica - 8/17/2015 No, we’re not ready to quit graphene, but the field of super-exciting 2D materials is getting rather crowded these days. That’s good news for a laundry list of desirable items of the future, including solar energy, wind energy, energy storage, and electric vehicle batteries. Lighter-smaller-faster-cheaper is the name of the game, and the use of nontoxic, abundant materials is a plus.
How Tiny Ribbons of Graphene Could Power a Faster Transistor; Researchers demonstrate a promising new approach to manufacturing a crucial form of graphene.-MIT Tech Review - 8/14/2015 A new way to make ultrathin ribbons of graphene could give the promising electronic material the edge it needs to finally become practical for use in digital processing on computer chips. Researchers have shown that they can grow the nanoribbons, a geometry that is crucial if the material is to made into high-performing transistors, directly on a wafer like those used in the semiconductor industry.
Graphene Ribbons Grow on Germanium; Researchers find better path to bandgap-EE Times - 8/14/2015 Graphene has no native bandgap, making its astounding speed in excess of 15,000 square centimeter per Volt-second (cm2/Vs)--10-times faster than silicon--usable only as a conductor. Now, however, a new technique for growing semiconducting graphene ribbons--and customize their bandgap--has been discovered by University of Wisconsin researchers led by professor Michael Arnold's Group and Argonne National Laboratory.
"We have found a way to grow semiconducting graphene ribbons less than 10 nanometers wide, with armchair edges, and can vary the resulting bandgap by controlling the width of the ribbons," professor Arnold told EE Times.
Black phosphorus surges ahead of graphene-Phys.org - 8/13/2015 A Korean team of scientists tune black phosphorus' band gap to form a superior conductor, allowing for the application to be mass produced for electronic and optoelectronics devices.
The research team from Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), affiliated with the Institute for Basic Science's (IBS) Center for Artificial Low Dimensional Electronic Systems (CALDES), reported a tunable band gap in BP, effectively modifying the semiconducting material into a unique state of matter with anisotropic dispersion. This research outcome potentially allows for great flexibility in the design and optimization of electronic and optoelectronic devices like solar panels and telecommunication lasers.
Lasers tailor graphene for new electronics technology-Phys.org - 8/06/2015 The researchers from Technological Center AIMEN explore the use of ultrafast lasers as tools for graphene processing. The laser beam can be focused precisely to tailor the properties of graphene films in finely defined areas to produce distinct behaviors useful for producing devices.
The key is the use of short, highly controlled laser pulses, which induce chemical changes in the carbon lattice. A single pulse of laser with a duration of several picoseconds is enough—the duration of a single oscillation in a polar molecule, like water. At this timescale, researchers demonstrated that they can pattern graphene lattices by cutting, adding external molecules or binding compounds (functional groups like oxygen or hydroxyl). As the laser spot can be focused in an area of one square micron or less, direct writing of devices on graphene can be achieved with high precision, producing nano-devices with minimal footprint and maximum efficiency.
Parity effect observed in graphene-Phys.org - 8/04/2015 Researchers have theoretically projected and successfully proven through experimentation the parity effect of the quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). Graphine, or single-layered graphite, has properties of both metals and semiconductors.
This group confirmed that the parity effect in graphene antidot devices has a good analogy to optical systems. This means various quantum interference devices can be produced by using the quantum hall edge transport with pn junctions.
Physicists announce graphene’s latest cousin: stanene-Nature - 8/03/2015 Two years after physicists predicted that tin should be able to form a mesh just one atom thick, researchers say that they have made it. The thin film, called stanene, is reported on 3 August in Nature Materials1. But researchers have not been able to confirm whether the material has the predicted exotic electronic properties that have excited theorists, such as being able to conduct electricity without generating any waste heat.
Nanoscale characterization of bilayer graphene edges-SPIE - 7/31/2015 Single-layer graphene (SLG) attracts much attention because of its unique properties (e.g., near-ballistic transport and extremely high carrier mobility at room temperature).1 Edges occur naturally in SLG samples,2 but they also appear when SLG is ‘cut’ into nanoribbons and quantum dots. The properties of SLG are strongly dependent on the orientations of such edges. In contrast to SLG, the edges of bilayer graphene (BLG) are complicated, i.e., the top and bottom layers of graphene have their own distinct edges. Ideally, the edges of the two layers are closely aligned and they form an ideal BLG edge. In most real cases, however, there is a misalignment distance between the edges.3 BLGs that are produced with mechanical exfoliation processes have a high probability of exhibiting misaligned edges. The misalignment distance in these cases can be as large as the micrometer scale, or as small as several nanometers. It has been difficult, however, to design a fast and nondestructive technique to measure the misalignment of BLG edges at the nanometer scale.
A cost-effective solution to tuned graphene production-Phys.org - 7/30/2015 Today (30 July), in the journal Nanotechnology, a team of researchers report that they have developed a simple electrochemical approach which allows defects to intentionally be created in the graphene, altering its electrical and mechanical properties and making the material even more useful.
The researchers used a technique called electrochemical synthesis to break graphite flakes into graphene layers. By varying the voltage they could change the resulting graphene's thickness, flake area, and number of defects - all of which alter the properties of graphene.
"Graphene is basically a metal - so it's somewhat boring!" explains Mario Hofmann, a researcher at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan. "But when you start adding defects you begin to get interesting effects."
Weyl Points: A New Dimension Over Graphene-Asian Scientist - 7/29/2015 Using specially constructed photonic crystals, researchers have demonstrated Weyl points, thereby opening a new field in basic physics...
"The discovery of Weyl points is not only the smoking gun to a scientific mystery," comments MIT Professor Marin Soljacic, "It paves the way to absolutely new photonic phenomena and applications."
"Think of the graphene revolution: graphene is a 2D structure, and its electronic properties are, to a substantial extent, a consequence of the existence of linear degeneracy points (known as Dirac points) in its momentum space. Materials containing Weyl points do the same in 3D. They literally add one degree of freedom, one dimension."
Graphene supercurrents go ballistic-Phys.org - 7/29/2015 Researchers with Europe's Graphene Flagship have demonstrated superconducting electric currents in the two-dimensional material graphene that bounce between sheet edges without scattering. This first direct observation of the ballistic mirroring of electron waves in a 2d system with supercurrents could lead to the use of graphene-based Josephson junctions in applications such as advanced digital logic circuits, ultrasensitive magnetometers and voltmeters.
Spins in graphene with a hedgehog texture-Nanowerk - 7/28/2015 At a surface or interface the electron spin can form specific patterns but it remains in the surface plane. Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) researchers have now succeeded in turning the spin out of the plane, and they explain why this is a principle property.
The results were published on 27. July 2015 in Nature Communications ("Tunable Fermi level and hedgehog spin texture in gapped graphene"). They are building on previous work published earlier in 2011 in Physical Review B ("Effect of sublattice asymmetry and spin-orbit interaction on out-of-plane spin polarization of photoelectrons").
3D graphene scaffolds produced by interferometric lithography-SPIE - 07/25/2015 Production of 3D graphene scaffolds with micron-scale pores by lithography using UV lasers enables the design of carbon electrodes for advanced electrochemical applications.
Nanoparticle Imaging with Graphene-EE Times - 7/24/2015 Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are using a monolayer of graphene as a see-through lens-like cap -- called a graphene liquid cell (GLC) -- to create a new imaging system for individual atoms in a single nanoparticle while still in solution. The process will greatly simplify design and redesign from trial-and-error to atomic-scale engineering, LBNL staff said.
How noisy are graphene biotransistors? - Nanotechweb - 7/24/2015 Graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) could make good biosensors but before they can be employed in such applications, researchers need to quantify the thermal noise limit in these devices. A team at Oregon State University and Cornell University has now done just this by measuring the impedance between a graphene sheet and the liquid it is immersed in.
Illuminating the electronic properties of graphene-Phys.org - 7/24/2015 Researchers at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have shown that both the carrier mobility and the carrier density of graphene can be measured in a spatially resolved and non-destructive way – providing 'maps' of the electronic properties critical for the successful use of graphene in photovoltaics, electronics, spintronics and optics – using terahertz (THz) radiation and doing away with the need to fabricate devices. Using a procedure known as THz time-domain spectroscopy, Jonas Buron and colleagues from DTU research teams led by Peter Uhd Jepsen and Peter Bøggild measured the carrier mobility and carrier density at tens of thousands of points in a centimetre sized single layer of graphene.
Graphene - from science fundamentals to low-cost production-Nanowerk - 7/24/2015 Keynote presentations on the third day of Graphene Week 2015 offered an eclectic mix of fundamental science and practical chemical engineering. Here we report briefly on each of the talks, beginning with an introduction to optoelectronics in 2d semiconductors and heterostructures, and concluding with an outline of a highly promising ‘kitchen sink’ approach to graphene production.
Massless particle more conductive than graphene paves way for more stable quantum computers-IBT - 7/21/2015 "Professor Hasan's experiments report the observation of both the unusual properties in the bulk of the crystal as well as the exotic surface states that were theoretically predicted," said Ashvin Vishwanath, a professor of physics at the University of California-Berkeley who was not involved in the study.
On the way to breaking the terahertz barrier for graphene nanoelectronics-Space Daily - 7/20/2015 A team of scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) discovered that electrical conduction in graphene on the picosecond timescale - a picosecond being one thousandth of one billionth of a second - is governed by the same basic laws that describe the thermal properties of gases.
This much simpler thermodynamic approach to the electrical conduction in graphene will allow scientists and engineers not only to better understand but also to improve the performance of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices.
Simpler Thermodynamic Approach Could Help Improve the Performance of Graphene-Based Nanoelectronic Devices-Azo Nano - 7/20/2015 A team of scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) discovered that electrical conduction in graphene on the picosecond timescale – a picosecond being one thousandth of one billionth of a second – is governed by the same basic laws that describe the thermal properties of gases. This much simpler thermodynamic approach to the electrical conduction in graphene will allow scientists and engineers not only to better understand but also to improve the performance of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices.
2D materials researchers aim 'beyond graphene'; In the realm of 2D materials, weirdness works-Penn State News - 7/20/2015 What the field needed was a deeper understanding of 2D materials and their weird properties. To take on this challenge, in 2013 Penn State’s Materials Research Institute started the Center for Two Dimensional and Layered Materials (2DLM). The center brings together about 50 faculty, postdoctoral researchers, and students from Penn State and other institutions around the country. It is the first research center to focus not just on graphene but "beyond graphene," according to Robinson, the center’s associate director. "It has really helped attract some of the best new faculty in the nation, as well as many high-performing students."
Scientists propose 3D graphene-like 'hyper-honeycomb' structures-Phys.org - 7/20/2015 Scientists have proposed a new family of structures that are three-dimensional (3D) variations of graphene, the simplest example of which is called a "hyper-honeycomb." If the proposed structures can be experimentally realized, the new ways to arrange carbon atoms would add to the ever-growing number of new carbon allotropes. The scientists also predict that, among its interesting properties, the hyper-honeycomb could potentially be even more stable than diamond.
The scientists, Kieran Mullen, Bruno Uchoa, and Daniel T. Glatzhofer at the University of Oklahoma, have published a paper on the proposed hyper-honeycomb and related structures in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters...
As the scientists explain, the trigonal connectivity of graphene produces something unusual: it causes the energy of an electron to vary linearly with momentum, which causes the electrons to mimic the behavior of electrons moving close to the speed of light. The momenta values at which this behavior occurs are called "Dirac points" after the Dirac equation that describes relativistic electrons. Most material structures, carbon or otherwise, do not contain Dirac points. This linear behavior strongly influences how the electrons behave, affecting their scattering and their interactions with vibrations in the lattice.
Here, the scientists investigated what happens when the Dirac points in a carbon-based planar trigonal structure are extended into three-dimensional space to form Dirac loops. Dirac loops are not as well understood as Dirac points because, unlike Dirac points which share similarities with relativistic electrons, Dirac loops do not have a relativistic analogue. To date, Dirac loops have never been experimentally observed, and have only been predicted to exist in a few finely tuned materials.
On the way to breaking the terahertz barrier for graphene nanoelectronics-Eurekalert - 7/16/2015 Mainz/Barcelona. A team of scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) discovered that electrical conduction in graphene on the picosecond timescale - a picosecond being one thousandth of one billionth of a second - is governed by the same basic laws that describe the thermal properties of gases. This much simpler thermodynamic approach to the electrical conduction in graphene will allow scientists and engineers not only to better understand but also to improve the performance of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices.
NRL Scientists Develop New Homoepitaxial Graphene Tunnel Barrier/Transport Channel Spintronic Device-NRL Release - 7/15/2015 Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have created a new type of room-temperature tunnel device structure in which the tunnel barrier and transport channel are made of the same material, graphene. Such functionalized homoepitaxial structures provide an elegant approach for realization of graphene-based spintronic, or spin electronic, devices. The research results are reported in a paper published in the journal ACS Nano (DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02795).
Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have created a new type of room-temperature tunnel device structure in which the tunnel barrier and transport channel are made of the same material, graphene. Such functionalized homoepitaxial structures provide an elegant approach for realization of graphene-based spintronic, or spin electronic, devices. The research results are reported in a paper published in the journal ACS Nano (DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02795)...
The NRL scientists use chemical vapor deposition to grow and then sequentially deposit a four-layer (only 4 atoms thick) graphene stack. They then hydrogenate the top few layers so that they serve as a tunnel barrier for both charge and spin injection into the lower graphene channel. They deposit ohmic (gold) and ferromagnetic permalloy (red) contacts as shown in the figure, forming a non-local spin valve structure. When the scientists apply a bias current between the left two contacts, a spin-polarized charge current tunnels from the permalloy into the graphene transport channel, generating a pure spin current that diffuses to the right. This spin current is detected as a voltage on the right permalloy contact that is proportional to the degree of spin polarization and its orientation. The vectorial character of spin (compared to the scalar character of charge) provides additional mechanisms for the control and manipulation needed for advanced information processing. The NRL team demonstrated the higher spin injection efficiency (16.5%) than most previous graphene spin devices, determined spin lifetimes with the Hanle effect, and observed only a 50% loss in spin valve signal from 10 K to room temperature (left graph).
New 2D super-material could beat graphene to becoming the new silicon-Extreme Tech - 7/14/2015 A purely theoretical mathematical study has inspired an experiment that could have serious real-world applications: a crystalline material called titanium trisulfide could perform almost as well as graphene in many areas, while lacking one key weakness. The two-part study both predicts and experimentally confirms its most remarkable property: their calculations and later tests show that the electronic "bandgap" of titanium trisulfide is about that of silicon, potentially making it a better candidate than graphene to allow truly next-generation electronics.
New 2D super-material could beat graphene to becoming the new silicon-Extreme Tech - 7/14/2015 A purely theoretical mathematical study has inspired an experiment that could have serious real-world applications: a crystalline material called titanium trisulfide could perform almost as well as graphene in many areas, while lacking one key weakness. The two-part study both predicts and experimentally confirms its most remarkable property: their calculations and later tests show that the electronic "bandgap" of titanium trisulfide is about that of silicon, potentially making it a better candidate than graphene to allow truly next-generation electronics...
Happily, this purely theoretical study was supplemented by another, practical one, which took a very early stab at actually making the material in the required 2D conformation. The approach was inspired by graphene itself: Nebraska-Lincoln’s Alexander Sinitskii created a macro-scale block of titanium trisulfide and simply stuck some adhesive tape on it. The very earliest samples of graphene were made by repeatedly sticking and unsticking clear sticky tape over a powdered sample of pure carbon, and it turns out that the same approach can create short “whiskers” of titanium trisulfide, unit by unit.
Sinitskii turned these short whiskers into titanium trisulfide transistors, and tested their performance, confirming that they had the expected properties, and abilities.
Fibril formation toughens graphene–polymer nanocomposite-NanoTechWeb.org - 7/13/2015 The microscopic understanding of the toughening mechanism is critical in designing and preparing high-performance graphene-polymer nanocomposites. Reporting in Nanotechnology, researchers discover that the mechanism results from the formation of long and highly orientated polymer fibrils. These help to prevent the occurrence of ruptures perpendicular to the deformation direction.
Scientists Describe Electron Properties of a Unique Graphene Analogue-Scicasts - 7/06/2015 Moscow, Russia (Scicasts) Scientists from the MIPT Department of Molecular and Chemical Physics have for the first time described the behavior of electrons in a previously unstudied analogue of graphene, two-dimensional niobium telluride, and, in the process, uncovered the nature of two-dimensionality effects on conducting properties. These findings will help in the creation of future flat and flexible electronic devices.
Two-Dimensional Titanium Supermaterial Does What Graphene Cannot-Popular Mechanics - 7/06/2015 Graphene may not be the only game in town when it comes to two-dimensional supermaterials. Researchers at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have fabricated titanium trisulfide, which has something graphene doesn't: the ability to turn off its conductivity.
Pomegranate-like nanocomposites: The new avenue of graphene in water splitting-Phys.org - 6/30/2015 The looming fossil energy crisis and serious environment and climate issues urgently call for sustainable energy systems and next-generation energy storage technologies. Instead of a traditional "carbon cycle" based on fossil energy, the "hydrogen cycle" has emerged and may be a promising alternative. With a water splitting device, H2 can be generated from water by electricity or solar energy, and energy transforms between electrical/solar and chemical energy in rechargeable batteries. However, the core issue of water splitting, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) (4OH- —> 2H2O + O2 + 4e-, in base), is a kinetically sluggish half-reaction, which requires a high overpotential and hinders the development of water splitting.
Recently, a research group from China, led by Prof. Qiang Zhang in Tsinghua University, has developed a novel graphene/metal hydroxide composite with superior oxygen evolution activity. This work is published in the journal Advanced Materials.
On one hand, graphene is a material that exhibits ultrahigh electrical conductivity, high surface area, and tunable 3D structures, which is excellent for heterogeneous electrocatalysis. However, the intrinsic activity of graphene is undesirable. On the other hand, NiFe layered double hydroxides (NiFe LDHs), with remarkable catalytic activity, high stability, earth-abundant and environmental benign characters, are regarded as the most promising nonprecious metal catalysts.
"Therefore, the fine control of NiFe LDH hybridization into a specific graphene substrate to obtain an increased electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), fully exposed active sites, and an optimal interfacial junction is the most promising recent topic towards superior oxygen evolution catalysis and practical application," Prof. Qiang Zhang says.
In this work, the architecture of graphene/NiFe LDH composites is inspired by the hierarchical structure of pomegranate. By using a nitrogen-doped mesoporous graphene framework as the substrate for the in situ growth and decoration of NiFe LDHs, the resultant LDHs exhibit a uniform nano-size and dispersion, and a strong interfacial couple with the conductive substrate.
Graphene flexes its electronic muscles-Eureka Alert - 6/30/2015 Flexing graphene may be the most basic way to control its electrical properties, according to calculations by theoretical physicists at Rice University and in Russia.
The Rice lab of Boris Yakobson in collaboration with researchers in Moscow found the effect is pronounced and predictable in nanocones and should apply equally to other forms of graphene.
The researchers discovered it may be possible to access what they call an electronic flexoelectric effect in which the electronic properties of a sheet of graphene can be manipulated simply by twisting it a certain way.
Scientists predict the existence of a liquid analogue of graphene-ZME Science - 6/29/2015 Just ten years ago, 2D materials were considered impossible, and now we have graphene. 2D liquids were also considered impossible, and now, scientists are already starting to predict them. Physicists at the University of Jyväskylä have conducted quantum simulations, predicting a liquid phase in atomic gold that would patch small pores of graphene.
According to their simulations, the gold atoms would flow and change places in the graphene plane, so basically, it would be liquid.
IIT: graphene nanoribbons produced by a novel method-The Hindu - 6/18/2015 For the first time, researchers have been successful in bringing about spontaneous chemical reactions between two different varieties of carbon nanotubes without using any chemicals. In fact, a simple mechanical grinding of the carbon nanotubes with a mortar and pestle was all that was required to induce chemical reactions. The end result was the production of valuable graphene nanoribbons.
Synthesizing a boron-rich cousin of graphene-nano werk - 6/17/2015 While exploring the possibility to realize graphene-like nanostructures of boron, carbon's neighbor in the periodic table, a team of chemical engineers at the Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar (IITGN) has discovered an entirely new family of 2-D compounds.
The nanosheets exfoliated from metal borides resemble graphene, are rich in boron, and carry oxy-functional groups. The aqueous dispersions looks completely transparent as these nanosheets don’t absorb in the visible regime. (Image: Saroj Kumar Das, IITGN) (click on image to enlarge)
Their research team, led by Dr. Kabeer Jasuja, Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at IITGN, has demonstrated exfoliation of a well-known superconductor Magnesium diboride (MgB2), a layered material that consists Mg atoms sandwiched in between born honeycomb planes.
The team's findings have been recently published in an article titled "Aqueous dispersions of few-layer-thick chemically modified magnesium diboride nanosheets by ultrasonication assisted exfoliation" in Scientific Reports.
Hooked on phonons: Research group measures graphene vibrations-Phys.org - 6/17/2015 An international research group led by scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology has developed a method for measuring crystal vibrations in graphene. Understanding these vibrations is a critical step toward controlling future technologies based on graphene, a one-atom thick form of carbon.
They report their findings in the June 19, 2015, issue of Physical Review Letters.
Carbon atoms in graphene sheets are arranged in a regularly repeating honeycomb-like lattice—a two-dimensional crystal. Like other crystals, when enough heat or other energy is applied, the forces that bond the atoms together cause the atoms to vibrate and spread the energy throughout the material, akin to how the vibration of a violin's string resonates throughout the body of the violin when played.
And just like every violin has its own unique character, each material vibrates at unique frequencies. The collective vibrations, which have frequencies in the terahertz-range (a billion billion oscillations per second), are called phonons.
Understanding how phonons interact gives clues as to how to put in, take out or move energy around inside a material. In particular, finding effective ways to remove heat energy is vital to the continued miniaturization of electronics.
Graphene heat-transfer riddle unraveled-Phys.org - 6/16/2015 Researchers have solved the long-standing conundrum of how the boundary between grains of graphene affects heat conductivity in thin films of the miracle substance—bringing developers a step closer to being able to engineer films at a scale useful for cooling microelectronic devices and hundreds of other nano-tech applications.
The study, by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and Boise State University, is published online in Nano Letters.
Since its discovery, graphene—a single layer of carbon atoms linked in a chicken-wire pattern—has attracted intense interest for its phenomenal ability to conduct heat and electricity. Virtually every nanotech device could benefit from graphene's extraordinary ability to dissipate heat and optimize electronic function, says Poya Yasaei, UIC graduate student in mechanical and industrial engineering and first author on the paper.
In a two-year, multidisciplinary investigation, the researchers developed a technique to measure heat transfer across a single grain boundary—and were surprised to find that it was an order of magnitude—a full 10 times—lower than the theoretically predicted value. They then devised computer models that can explain the surprising observations from the atomic level to the device level....
...When two crystals are neatly lined up, heat transfer occurs just as predicted by theory. But if the two crystals have mis-aligned edges, the heat transfer is 10 times less.
Carbon-60 and graphene for vertical transistors-Nanotechweb.org - 6/15/2015 Researchers at the University of Stanford in the US, the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) in South Korea and Queen’s University Belfast in the UK have grown carbon-60 thin films on graphene (a sheet of carbon just one atom thick). They then made the resulting structures up into vertical transistors doped with n-type semiconducting materials and found that these devices have current on/off ratios of more than 3 x 103. The results prove that graphene is an excellent substrate for assembling small organic molecules and such heterostructures might be used in applications like high-performance detectors, solar cells and flexible transistors to name but a few.
..."Since both graphene and organic C60 thin films are good materials for flexible electronics devices, our heterostructures could readily be incorporated into flexible transistors and other such components (like wearable displays, for instance)," he tells nanotechweb.org. "The organic semiconductor-graphene junction is also a unique candidate for high-performance photosensors and solar cells and we expect to see these architectures widely employed in such device applications soon."...
Blue nano-graphene OLED is stable in air-ElectronicsWeekly.com - 6/11/2015 Chemists at the Goethe University have developed a class of boron-based organic luminescent materials with intensive blue fluorescence. The materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) – collections of benzene rings that are effectively shards of graphene. In this one, the two meso carbon atoms of bisanthene are replaced with boron.
NPL Study Offers New Insight into Electronic Properties of Quasi-Free Standing Graphene-AZO Nano - 6/08/2015 A recent study published by NPL's Quantum Detection Group in Scientific Reports journal describes new prospects on the electronic properties of quasi-free standing graphene (QFSG) that could find applications in sensors and high speed electronics.
The study was carried out in association with the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Poland and the University of Surrey, UK. It was evident from the study that the electronic and structural properties of graphene changes at nano level as a result of hydrogen intercalation, where the material is decoupled from the silicon carbide supporting substrate.
The researchers observed that the introduction of hydrogen molecules between SiC and epitaxial graphene facilitates sudden changes in the material's electronic properties. This could result in carrier type changes and considerable increase in the carrier mobility.
Diffusion and remote detection of hot-carriers in graphene-Phys.org - 6/08/2015 In a new article published in Nano Letters, ICN2 researchers led by ICREA Prof Sergio O. Valenzuela have investigated hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The results create new opportunities for nanoscale bolometry and calorimetry and could have a strong impact in the performance of conventional graphene devices.
Due to the weak electron-phonon coupling in graphene, 2D Dirac massless carriers can present a much higher temperature than the graphene lattice. Such hot carriers propagate over long distances, resulting in novel thermoelectric and optoelectronic phenomena. Researchers of the ICN2 have studied such hot carrier propagation and detection in a new article published in Nano Letters titled 'Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot-Carriers in Graphene'
Fabrication of carbon nanotube transparent conductive film with long-term stability-Nanowerk News - 6/04/2015 As nanoparticles of metal halides such as copper iodide are grown in a film, the newly developed carbon nanotube (CNT) transparent conductive film has a hybrid structure in which the nanoparticles connect CNTs to each other. The film retains 85 % of the transmittance of the base material, while sheet resistance (surface resistance rate) is 60 O/square. The film has sufficiently high transparency and conductivity for practical CNT transparent conductive films. The film also achieved long-term stability of sheet resistance when kept in the open air, which has been an issue with the conventional doping technology used to improve conductivity.
The developed film is expected to have applications in touch panels, sensors, flexible solar cells, and more as a flexible conductive material using the flexible characteristics of CNTs. It is also expected to have applications in wearable electronics that require elasticity.
Details of the results were published in Carbon.
Visualising nanoscale changes in the electronic properties of graphene-Nanowerk - 6/04/2015 NPL's Quantum Detection Group has recently published a study in Scientific Reports ("Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: studies of local electronic and structural properties") that casts a new light on the electronic properties of quasi-free standing graphene (QFSG), a material that may find applications in high speed electronics, sensing and electronic applications.
The study, which was conducted in collaboration with the University of Surrey, UK, and the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Poland, shows for the first time the nanoscale changes of graphene's electronic and structural properties upon hydrogen intercalation which decouples the material from the silicon carbide supporting substrate.
The researchers showed that the insertion of hydrogen molecules between epitaxial graphene and SiC promotes a dramatic change in the electronic properties of the material, leading to the change of the carrier type and significant increase in carrier mobility.
Researchers learn to control graphene with lasers-Phys.org - 6/03/2015 New numerical simulations by Berkeley Lab Alvarez Fellow Alexander Kemper and his colleagues at Stanford University reveal how the quantum properties of graphene can be manipulated at ultrafast timescales with femtosecond laser pulses.
Graphene oxide biodegrades with help of human enzymes-Nanowerk News - 6/01/2015 "Our study demonstrates the complete breakdown of graphene oxide by myeloperoxidase, and the results indicate that accidental inhalation of graphene oxide presents a manageable health risk in humans and other species," says Bianco. "On the other hand, the translation of graphene-based materials into clinically safe biomaterials for biomedical applications is also judged by biodegradability. Our research may provide a method for the environmentally safe disposal of graphene-based materials. It could also guide the development of biocompatible graphene-based carriers for the delivery of bioactive molecules."
Spiraling laser pulses could change the nature of graphene-Phys.org - 5/28/2015 ..."our simulations show that we could theoretically change the electronic properties of the graphene, flipping it back and forth from a metallic state, where electrons flow freely, to an insulating state. In digital terms this is like flipping between zero and one, on and off, yes and no; it can be used to encode information in a computer memory, for instance. What makes this cool and interesting is that you could make electronic switches with light instead of electrons."
Measuring hot electrons;
MIT graduate student Qiong Ma is uncovering electrical properties of graphene-based devices using laser-light stimulation.-MIT News
- 5/26/2015 Ma was a co-author of 2011 Science paper demonstrating that a single-layer or two-layer graphene p–n junction could act like a thermoelectric device rather than a photovoltaic device. When researchers stimulate the junction with laser light, electrons called hot carriers that heat up when they absorb energy from the laser move across the graphene in tiny fractions of a second without melding into its lattice structure and diffusing their energy as heat. Ma built the graphene devices, with differently sized top and bottom gate electrodes, and with the top gate consisting of dielectric boron nitride. Ma also was lead author of a follow-up paper in June 2014 in the journal Physical Review Letters.
When laser light shines on the device, it excites electrons in the graphene system. "In other materials like metals, this energy will be quickly released from electrons to the lattice, and will be dissipated as heat," Ma explains. "But in graphene, this process can be very slow because of very inefficient coupling between electrons and lattice, and that makes it more efficient for the energy conversion between light and electricity."
Ma also studied how changes in temperature affected the graphene-based photodetector to identify the best operating temperature. "I found the optimal temperature is around 60 kelvins for this particular type of device, a fivefold increase compared to room temperature," she says. That's about -269 degrees Celsius or -452 degrees Fahrenheit. "It will be certainly better if we can push it to higher temperature. Since we know the mechanism, we can actually tune this optimal temperature by making the device more clean or engineering the device in some way," Ma says.
Ma is currently working on layered structures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), called heterostructures, which can also be used as photodetectors. "Hexagonal boron nitride is another 2-D material which is routinely used as a very good substrate for a graphene device, but we found it can do much more than that," she says. "We build up these sandwiches of graphene, hBN, graphene, from top to bottom, and we operate in the vertical direction — top graphene to the bottom graphene," Ma explains. "In this type of device, we can extract the most energetic electrons from graphene, and it's very fast," she says. The research showed hot carrier extraction from the approximately 10-nanometer-thick film on the order of 100 femtoseconds (10-13 seconds). "Without light, at room temperature the electron will be 300 K, but when the electron gets energy from the laser, it becomes thousands of kelvins. That's the hot electrons. In graphene, electrons actually can go to above 3,000 kelvins in a very efficient way. In the heterostructure, we can actually extract that very, very hot electron out," Ma explains. "The system can be responsive to both visible and IR [infrared] light, making it suitable for work as a photodetector." Fast-electron transport coupled with the increase in thermoelectric energy makes the graphene-based structures suitable for energy harvesting such as solar thermoelectric devices...
Ma adds that she is currently struggling to understand data she's collected that seem to indicate a photocurrent response in graphene without a junction such as in previous work. Instead, the photocurrent seems to be triggered, or be induced, solely by the geometry of the graphene. "I pattern the graphene to some typical geometries, such as a constriction, and we see the current generated at that junction which is purely defined by the geometry, not by junctions of different materials or different potentials. We saw the phenomenon first, but there are no existing theories for that, so in order to understand that, I have to learn some theories and discuss them with theorists," she explains.
Nano-electromechanical rotation of graphene in a liquid crystal platform-nanowerk - 5/25/2015 In new work, researchers at the United States Naval Academy have developed a technique to control the orientation of graphene flakes at the nanoscale by using a nematic liquid crystal (LC) platform (in the nematic LC phase the molecules are oriented in parallel but not arranged in well-defined planes).
"The multifaceted interactions between nematic liquid crystals and various nanomaterials have been an active area of fundamental and applied research over the past decade," Rajratan Basu, an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics at the United States Naval Academy, tells Nanowerk (see for instance our previous Nanowerk Spotlight "Cleansing the ionic impurities in LCDs with nanoparticles"). "Especially the two-dimensional honeycomb structure of graphene shows very interesting interactions with an LC."
Reporting their findings in the May 22, 2015 online edition of Applied Physics Letters ("Nano-electromechanical rotation of graphene and giant enhancement of dielectric anisotropy in a liquid crystal"), Basu and his students Midshipman Daniel Kinnamon and Midshipman Alfred Garvey have demonstrated that in the presence of monolayer graphene flakes the nematic LC exhibits a giant enhancement of dielectric anisotropy.
Controlling light with light using coherent metadevices: all-optical transistor, summator and invertor-Nature - 5/22/2015 Although vast amounts of information are conveyed by photons in optical fibers, the majority of data processing is performed electronically, creating the infamous ‘information bottleneck’ and consuming energy at an increasingly unsustainable rate. The potential for photonic devices to directly manipulate light remains unfulfilled due largely to a lack of materials with strong, fast optical nonlinearities. In this paper, we show that small-signal amplifier, summator and invertor functions for optical signals may be realized using a four-port device that exploits the coherent interaction of beams on a planar plasmonic metamaterial, assuming no intrinsic nonlinearity. The redistribution of energy among ports can provide nonlinear input-output signal dependencies and may be coherently controlled at very low intensity levels, with multi-THz bandwidth and without introducing signal distortion, thereby presenting powerful opportunities for novel optical data processing architectures, complexity oracles and the locally coherent networks that are becoming part of the mainstream telecommunications agenda.
Scaling for quantum tunneling current in nano- and subnano-scale plasmonic junctions-Nature - 5/19/2015 When two conductors are separated by a sufficiently thin insulator, electrical current can flow between them by quantum tunneling. This paper presents a self-consistent model of tunneling current in a nano- and subnano-meter metal-insulator-metal plasmonic junction, by including the effects of space charge and exchange correlation potential. It is found that the J-V curve of the junction may be divided into three regimes: direct tunneling, field emission, and space-charge-limited regime. In general, the space charge inside the insulator reduces current transfer across the junction, whereas the exchange-correlation potential promotes current transfer. It is shown that these effects may modify the current density by orders of magnitude from the widely used Simmons’ formula, which is only accurate for a limited parameter space (insulator thickness?>?1?nm and barrier height?>?3?eV) in the direct tunneling regime. The proposed self-consistent model may provide a more accurate evaluation of the tunneling current in the other regimes. The effects of anode emission and material properties (i.e. work function of the electrodes, electron affinity and permittivity of the insulator) are examined in detail in various regimes. Our simple model and the general scaling for tunneling current may provide insights to new regimes of quantum plasmonics.
Graphene-wrapped diamond ball bearings cut friction to virtually nothing-Chemistry World - 5/14/2015 Anirudha Sumant and colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois suspected that the surface of diamond-like carbon (DLC), which consists of randomly mixed sp3 and sp2 bonds, might provide a perfect lattice mismatch against which graphene could slide with minimal resistance. To test this they passed a millimetre-scale DLC slider across a silica surface covered with graphene. However, the friction they measured between the two surfaces was inconsistent – sometimes very low, other times higher. When they examined wear on the slider, they discovered that nanoscale scrolls of graphene had detached from the graphene surface. Suspecting these were behind the low friction, they added nanodiamonds to the surface to act like tiny ball bearings. When they tested the two surfaces again they found that friction dropped to virtually zero and stayed low as the slider moved. They showed that the graphene flakes bond to and wrap around the nanodiamonds, cutting friction through a mixture of lattice mismatch effects and acting like miniature ball bearings. 'Once you have this roll then [the DLC] just slides across the surface,' says Sumant.
Controlling light with light using coherent metadevices: all-optical transistor, summator and invertor-Light Science & Applications - 5/22/2015 Although vast amounts of information are conveyed by photons in optical fibers, the majority of data processing is performed electronically, creating the infamous ‘information bottleneck’ and consuming energy at an increasingly unsustainable rate. The potential for photonic devices to directly manipulate light remains unfulfilled due largely to a lack of materials with strong, fast optical nonlinearities. In this paper, we show that small-signal amplifier, summator and invertor functions for optical signals may be realized using a four-port device that exploits the coherent interaction of beams on a planar plasmonic metamaterial, assuming no intrinsic nonlinearity. The redistribution of energy among ports can provide nonlinear input-output signal dependencies and may be coherently controlled at very low intensity levels, with multi-THz bandwidth and without introducing signal distortion, thereby presenting powerful opportunities for novel optical data processing architectures, complexity oracles and the locally coherent networks that are becoming part of the mainstream telecommunications agenda.
Diagnostics of quality of graphene and spatial imaging of reactivity centers on carbon surface-Science Daily - 5/08/2015 A convenient procedure to visualize defects on graphene layers by mapping the surface of carbon materials with an appropriate contrast agent was introduced by a team of researchers from Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) involved in international collaborative project. Developed imaging (tomography) procedure has revealed organized patterns of defects on large areas of carbon surfaces. Several types of defects on the carbon surface can be "caught" and captured on the microscopic image within a few minutes. The article describing the research was published in Chemical Science, a journal of Royal Society of Chemistry.
Electrons corralled using new quantum tool; “Whispering gallery” effect confines electrons, could provide basis for new electron-optics devices.-MIT News - 5/07/2015 The new finding is described in a paper appearing in the journal Science, co-authored by MIT professor of physics Leonid Levitov and researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the University of Maryland, Imperial College London, and the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Tsukuba, Japan.
When the sharp tip of the STM is poised over a sheet of graphene, it produces a circular barrier on the sheet that "acts as a perfect curved mirror" for electrons, Levitov says, reflecting them along the curved surface until they begin to interfere with themselves. This controllable reflectivity and interference is similar, he adds, to so-called "whispering gallery" confinement modes that have been used in optical and acoustic systems — but these have not been tunable or adjustable.
"In optics, whispering gallery resonators are known and useful," Levitov says. "They provide high-quality cavities that find applications in sensing, spectroscopy, and communications. But the usual problem in optics is they’re not tunable." Similarly, previous attempts to create quantum "corrals" for electrons have used atoms precisely positioned on a surface, which cannot be reconfigured easily.
Nanoscopic mapping of energy transfer-Energy Harvesting Journal - 5/6/2015 A group of researchers, led by Prof. Jon Camden of the University of Notre Dame, has reported the first nanoscale mapping of the flow of energy between light-harvesting plasmonic nanoparticles and semiconductor substrates. Plasmonic nanoparticles are important in a variety of applications, including solar energy-harvesting devices, photocatalyic devices, single-molecule spectroscopy, and molecular sensing. They are of particular interest in solar energy-harvesting due to their potential to significantly increase the efficiency of such devices by expanding the solar spectrum available for energy conversion. The work is presented in a paper entitled "Spatially Mapping Energy Transfer from Single Plasmonic Particles to Semiconductor Substrates via STEM/EELS" in Nano Letters.
Laser-induced local profile transformation of multilayered graphene on a substrate-Optics & Laser Tech - 5/2015 Multi-layered graphene deposited on silicon wafer was irradiated in air by sequences of nanosecond laser pulses. It is shown that ultra-shallow craters (cavities) with depth of ~1 nm and microholes can be formed in graphene sheet on the substrate at laser fluence ~0.04 J/cm2 well below the experimentally known graphene ablation threshold =0.25 J/cm2. Influence of intensity and number of laser pulses on the depth and roughness of the cavities are described. We suggest that the observed effects are related to laser heating and boiling of the adsorbate at graphene-silicon interface.
Diagnostics of quality of graphene and spatial imaging of reactivity centers on carbon surface-Phys.org - 5/08/2015 A convenient procedure to visualize defects on graphene layers by mapping the surface of carbon materials with an appropriate contrast agent was introduced by a team of researchers from Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) involved in international collaborative project. A new imaging tomography procedure has revealed organized patterns of defects on large areas of carbon surfaces. Several types of defects on the carbon surface can be "caught" and captured on the microscopic image within a few minutes. The article describing the research was published in Chemical Science, the journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Electrons in graphene corralled using new quantum tool-Nano Werk - 5/07/2015 When the sharp tip of the STM is poised over a sheet of graphene, it produces a circular barrier on the sheet that "acts as a perfect curved mirror" for electrons, Levitov says, reflecting them back toward the center of the circle. This controllable reflectivity is similar, he adds, to so-called "whispering gallery" confinement modes that have been used in optical and acoustic systems -- but these have not been tunable or adjustable.
Low interfacial contact resistance of Al-graphene composites via interface engineering-IOPScience - 5/06/2015 Al-based composites incorporating multilayered graphene sheets were developed via a facile approach. The multilayered graphene sheets were fabricated from the expanded graphite via a simple mechanical exfoliation process. The facile extrusion molding process with Al powder and graphene sheets exfoliated from expended graphite afforded Al-based graphene composite rods. These composites showed enhanced thermal conductivity compared to the pristine Al rods. Moreover, the Al-based multilayered graphene sheet composites exhibited lower interfacial contact resistance between graphene-based electrodes than the pristine Al. With increasing degrees of dispersion, the number of exposed graphene sheets increases, thereby significantly decreasing the interfacial contact resistance between the composite and external graphite electrode
Spiders sprayed with graphene or carbon nanotubes spin super silk-New Scientist - 05/05/2015 Some spiders produced below-par silk, but others got a major boost. The best fibres came from a spider dosed with nanotubes: it was around 3.5 times as tough and strong as the best unaltered silk, spun by the giant riverine orb spider.
Channeling valleytronics in graphene: Researchers discover 1-D conducting channels in bilayer graphene-phy.org - 05/05/2015 "Combining near-field infrared nanometer-scale microscopy and low-temperature electrical transport measurements, we have recorded the first experimental observations of 1D ballistic electron conducting channels at bilayer graphene domain walls," says Feng Wang, a condensed matter physicist with Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division, who led this work. "These 1D valley-polarized conducting channels featured a ballistic length of about 400 nanometers at 4 kelvin. Their existence opens up opportunities for exploring unique topological phases and valley physics in graphene."
Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide-Journal of Optics - 5/01/2015 Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions.
Researchers create smallest gaps ever in nanostructures using graphene-Extreme Tech - 4/27/2015 A team of PhD students and undergrads at UC San Diego has developed a technique that generates extremely small gaps, or nanogaps. Structures with these atomic-sized gaps could be used to detect single molecules associated with certain diseases, and could lead to microprocessors several orders of magnitude smaller than the ones in computers today. The concept, at least, is pretty simple: Shrink the space between circuits on a chip, and you can fit more circuits on that same chip.
Theoretical framework for graphene physics established-ScienceDaily - 4/20/2015 In 2013, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) discovered that placing graphene on top of hexagonal boron nitride, another one-atom-thick material with similar properties will create a hybrid material that shares graphene's amazing ability to conduct electrons, while adding the band gap necessary to form transistors and other semiconductor devices. Semiconductors, which can switch between conducting and insulating states, are the basis for modern electronics. The reasons behind why the hybrid material performed as such were unexplained until this new theoretical framework was created by researchers from Yale-NUS, NUS and UT Austin.
To fully harness the hybrid material's properties for the creation of viable semiconductors, a robust band gap without any degradation in the electronic properties is a necessary requirement. The researchers concluded that it is necessary to use a theoretical framework that treats electronic and mechanical properties equally in order to make reliable predictions for these new hybrid materials.
Researchers fine-tune quantum dots from coal-Phys.org - 3/18/2015 In a new study this week in the American Chemical Society journal Applied Materials & Interfaces, Tour and colleagues demonstrated fine control over the graphene oxide dots' size-dependent band gap, the property that makes them semiconductors. Quantum dots are semiconducting materials that are small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties that only appear at the nanoscale.
Tour's group found they could produce quantum dots with specific semiconducting properties by sorting them through ultrafiltration, a method commonly used in municipal and industrial water filtration and in food production.
The other single-step process involved direct control of the reaction temperature in the oxidation process that reduced coal to quantum dots. The researchers found hotter temperatures produced smaller dots, which had different semiconducting properties.
Tour said graphene quantum dots may prove highly efficient in applications ranging from medical imaging to additions to fabrics and upholstery for brighter and longer-lasting colors. "Quantum dots generally cost about $1 million per kilogram and we can now make them in an inexpensive reaction between coal and acid, followed by separation. And the coal is less than $100 per ton."
Symmetry matters in graphene growth-ScienceDaily - 3/16/2015 Scientists at Rice analyzed patterns of graphene -- a single-atom-thick sheet of carbon -- grown in a furnace via chemical vapor deposition. They discovered that the geometric relationship between graphene and the substrate, the underlying material on which carbon assembles atom by atom, determines how the island shapes emerge. The study led by Rice theoretical physicist Boris Yakobson and postdoctoral researcher Vasilii Artyukhov shows how the crystalline arrangement of atoms in substrates commonly used in graphene growth, such as nickel or copper, controls how islands form. The results appear this week in Physical Review Letters.
Polarized light pushes graphene plasmons-NanoTechWeb - 2/26/2015 Applying circularly polarized light to a monolayer of graphene dramatically changes how surface electromagnetic waves (or plasmons) disperse along the carbon sheet. This new result, from researchers in Sweden and The Netherlands, could not only be important for studying how charge carriers move in graphene, but could also help build graphene-based elements for the rapidly developing field of "metamaterials".
Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding - 11/2014 Their strong, specific electrostatic binding may advance sensors, chemical separations, nuclear-waste cleanup, extraction of metals from ores, purification and recycling of rare-earth elements, water purification, biotechnology, energy production in durable lithium-ion batteries, catalysis, medicine and data storage.
The simplest element: Turning hydrogen into 'graphene'-Science Daily - 12/16/2014 The new work from Naumov and Hemley shows that the stability of the unusual hydrogen structure arises from the intrinsic stability of its hydrogen rings. These rings form because of so-called aromaticity, which is well understood in carbon-containing molecules such as benzene, as well as in graphene. Aromatic structures take on a ring-like shape that can be thought of as alternating single and double bonded carbons. But what actually happens is that the electrons that make up these theoretically alternating bonds become delocalized and float in a shared circle around the inside of the ring, increasing stability.
Magnetic fields and lasers elicit graphene secret - Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have studied the dynamics of electrons from the 'wonder material' graphene in a magnetic field for the first time. This led to the discovery of a seemingly paradoxical phenomenon in the material. Its understanding could make a new type of laser possible in the future.
Electrons move like light in three-dimensional solid - Electrons were observed to travel in a solid [Na3Bi and Cd3As2] at an unusually high velocity, which remained the same independent of the electron energy. This anomalous light-like behavior is found in special two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, but is now realized in a three-dimensional bulk material. High-resolution angle-resolved electron spectroscopy, stimulated by synchrotron x-ray radiation, was used to substantiate the theoretically predicted exotic electron structure.
Laser Controlled Diamagnetic Levitating Micromotor using Graphene Oxide Paper and Rare Earth Magnets-YouTube - 6/27/2014 Experiment with levitating micro-sized graphene oxide paper wheels on circular rare-earth magnets being driven to rotation with a 5mW UV laser. Just like in the case of the laser guided, maglev "tractor beam" (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fB3ns...) the force-load-fulcrum system created when the graphene oxide is illuminated with the laser creates an analogous torque-load-axis of rotation on the wheels, hence the laser directed at one end of the wheel will create a torque of motion at the opposite end towards the strain induced by the load created as the laser lowers the magnetic susceptibility on one side.
Tractor Beam Laser Maglev - Magnetic Levitated Graphene Paper Moved with UV Laser-YouTube - 6/11/2014 Here we demonstrate an effect which looks like the classic "tractor beam" seen in science fiction films and tv shows. We have made pieces of thin graphene which can levitate over a bed of 1.2T rare earth permanent magnets and can be 'pushed' around or made to spin using a handheld, focusable 5mW 390-405nm laser beam.
The phenomenon demonstrates visibly how it is possible to convert light, either from a laser beam or focused sunlight, to kinetic and hence mechanical energy.
This demonstrates simple principles of transferring energy, as well as how motors and engines can operate on the principle of the magnetic spin degrees of freedom to create reversible heat cycles where no atoms or molecules are moved, offering a possible alternative way to harness solar energy.
Plasmonic Force Propulsion Revolutionizes Nano/PicoSatellite Capability-NASA News - 7/19/2013 We propose to numerically simulate plasmonic force fields with asymmetric/gradient geometry and relevant solar light constraints, predict nanoparticle velocity, mass flow rate, and resulting propulsion performance (thrust, specific impulse), and evaluate spacecraft position control resolution and pointing precision enabled by plasmonic propulsion. We will compare our results with state-of-the-art thrusters (e.g., colloid/electrospray electric propulsion) and torquers (e.g., reaction wheels). We will also assess the feasibility of plasmonic propulsion to meet and/or exceed the stringent demands of future NASA missions.
Final Report-May, 2014
Graphene Photonics and Nano-Plasmonics Program-ONR - 2013 Research program at a glance. Major advances in graphene plasmonics and photonics by this team are propelled by a closely coordinated effort centering on fundamental optical physics of graphene, device nanofabrication and infrared/optical nano-characterization.
Graphene: Graphene Nanoribbons Under Mechanical Strain-Advanced Materials - 2/2015 C. Chen, J. Guo, H. Dai, and co-workers introduce uniaxial strains (0-6%) into individual graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with highly smooth edges for the first time by atomic force microscopy manipulation and investigate strain effects on GNRs. It is found that uniaxial strain downshifts the Raman G-band frequency of GNRs linearly and tunes their bandgap significantly in a non-monotonic manner. Strain engineering of GNRs is demonstrated to be promising for modulating the properties of GNRs toward potential device applications.
Space Production and Power-Air Force Research Laboratory - 3/6/2014 Field Reverse Configuration Propulsion. Successfully ... Functionalized graphene sheet .... Plasmon-plasma coupling for micro-accelerator.
Graphene can host exotic new quantum electronic states at its edges - Under typical conditions, sheets of graphene behave as normal conductors: Apply a voltage, and current flows throughout the two-dimensional flake. If you turn on a magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene flake, however, the behavior changes: Current flows only along the edge, while the bulk remains insulating. Moreover, this current flows only in one direction — clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the orientation of the magnetic field — in a phenomenon known as the quantum Hall effect.
In the new work, the researchers found that if they applied a second powerful magnetic field — this time in the same plane as the graphene flake — the material’s behavior changes yet again: Electrons can move around the conducting edge in either direction, with electrons that have one kind of spin moving clockwise while those with the opposite spin move counterclockwise
Charging of graphene by a magnetic field and the mechanical effect of magnetic oscillations-Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter - 11/2013 We discuss the fact that the quantum capacitance of graphene-based devices leads to variation of graphene charge density under changes of external magnetic field. The charge is conserved, but redistributes to the substrate or other graphene sheets. We derive an exact analytic expression for charge redistribution in the case of ideal graphene in a strong magnetic field. When we account for impurities and temperature, the effect decreases and the formulas reduce to standard quantum capacitance expressions. The importance of quantum capacitance for potential Casimir force experiments is emphasized and the corresponding corrections are worked out.
Plasmons in graphene: Recent progress and ... - arXiv - 2013 flexible feature, and good tunability, graphene can be a promising plasmonic material alternative to the conventional metals.
Graphene Is A Tunable Plasmonic Medium-Ideas, Inventions And Innovations - 6/20/2012 With a beam of infrared light, scientists have sent ripples of electrons along the surface of graphene and demonstrated that they can control the length and height of these oscillations, called plasmons, using a simple electrical circuit.
This is the first time anyone has observed plasmons on graphene, sheets of carbon just one atom thick with a host of intriguing physical properties, and an important step toward using plasmons to process and transmit information in spaces too tight to use light.
Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light–Matter Interactions-Nano Letters - 7/18/2011 Graphene plasmons provide a suitable alternative to noble-metal plasmons because they exhibit much tighter confinement and relatively long propagation distances, with the advantage of being highly tunable via electrostatic gating. Here, we propose to use graphene plasmons as a platform for strongly enhanced light–matter interactions. Specifically, we predict unprecedented high decay rates of quantum emitters in the proximity of a carbon sheet, observable vacuum Rabi splittings, and extinction cross sections exceeding the geometrical area in graphene nanoribbons and nanodisks. Our theoretical results provide the basis for the emerging and potentially far-reaching field of graphene plasmonics, offering an ideal platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, and supporting the possibility of single-molecule, single-plasmon devices.
Mass Can Be 'Created' Inside Graphene, Say Physicists-MIT Technology Review - 10/21/2010 ...how do you compactify space-like dimensions in graphene? Simple, you roll it up. This changes the sheet into a tube that is effectively 1-dimensional, at least as far as the electrons and holes are concerned.
There are some important mathematical differences between the mass that can be generated this way and the stuff you can rap your knuckles on. But now physicists have the chance to compare the effects in an ordinary lab.
The ability to generate or destroy mass simply by changing the geometry of graphene is a powerful idea. The first challenge will be to reproduce the effect in the lab. Expect to find solid state physicists burning the midnight oil in coming weeks.
Effect of Energetic Electron Irradiation on Graphene-Purdue Univ. - 10/01/2009 Electron beam exposure is a commonly used tool for fabrication and imaging of graphene-based
devices. Using Raman spectroscopy and electronic transport measurements, we have studied the effect of
prolonged exposure of electron beams on exfoliated graphene on SiO2/Si substrates and the performance of
electronic devices based on exfoliated graphene. Raman spectra indicate emergence of characteristic defects.
Electronic transport measurements show an overall decrease in graphene’s conductivity and a shift of the Dirac
point. Our results are valuable for understanding the possible defects generated in graphene by electron beam
exposure and in high-radiation environment in general.
Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies-Physical Review - 2009 We point out that plasmons in doped graphene simultaneously enable low losses and significant wave localization...
Electrons lose their mass in carbon sheets-Physics World - 11/09/2005 Two teams of physicists have discovered previously unseen exotic behaviour in sheets of carbon atoms. The teams have shown that electrons move through the sheets as if they have no rest mass. They have also observed a minimum value of conductivity for the sheets and an unusual form of the quantum Hall effect (Nature 438 197 and 201).
Graphene Production Techniques
Explosions used to make large quantities of graphene - Extreme Tech - 1/29/2017 This explosive method for producing graphene was not originally intended to do any such thing. The KSU team was working on creating carbon soot aerosol gels with combustion. The product of these experiments was a clumpy black gel that resembles "dark angel food cake." Upon closer inspection of the material, Professor Chris Sorensen and his team realized it wasn’t just any carbon in the gel, it was graphene.
Graphene is a single atom-thick carbon molecule, and the production of it has proven vexing. The earliest samples were isolated from a block of carbon with regular scotch tape, but producing usable amounts of it takes more advanced tools. Other methods involve treating graphite with harsh and expensive chemicals like sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate, potassium permanganate, or hydrazine. It also needs to be heated to at least 1,000 degrees Celsius to get the atoms lined up correctly. The KSU method, on the other hand, requires only hydrocarbon gas, oxygen, and a spark plug.
The process is remarkably simple. The 17-liter aluminum chamber is filled with the mixture of gases, then the spark plug ignites them. The aerosol gel is then collected. It’s extremely low-density, but the chamber produces graphene by the gram rather than by the milligram like other methods.
New production method may accelerate mass production of graphene - Digital Trends - 12/19/2016 "We wanted to both simplify the production process for graphene devices in general and increase the range of surfaces that we can put graphene devices on," professor of engineering David Wright, a co-author of the paper told Digital Trends. "Since, in our method, we make complete devices on the copper foils used in the graphene growth process, we can transfer these complete devices to any suitable surface."
As the graphene is grown using the traditional method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), Wright said the graphene produced using his team’s method is of comparable quality to that grown conventionally.
Mass producing graphene using microwaves - Science Daily - 9/27/2016 A new study by an international team of researchers from UNIST and Rutgers University has proved that it is now possible to produce high quality graphene, using a microwave oven. The team reports that this new technique may have solved some of graphene's difficult manufacturing problems. The findings of the research have been published in the September issue of the journal Science.
Scalable production of highly crystalline graphene films - Printed Electronics World - 9/01/2016 Researchers discovered a procedure to restore defective graphene oxide structures that cause the material to display low carrier mobility. By applying a high-temperature reduction treatment in an ethanol environment, defective structures were restored, leading to the formation of a highly crystalline graphene film with excellent band-like transport. These findings are expected to come into use in scalable production techniques of highly crystalline graphene films.
Novel self-assembly can tune the electronic properties of graphene - Phys.org - 7/27/2016 In what could prove to be a significant advance in fabricating new technologies, scientists discovered a new self-assembly mechanism that surprisingly drives negatively charged molecules to clump together to form islands when graphene is supported by an electrical insulator. Under these conditions, different charge interactions are not diminished, as they are when graphene is supported by a metallic substrate. At low concentrations, individual adsorbed molecules repel each other, but with increasing concentration, the molecules form two-dimensional islands. It was determined by theory that the flow of extra electrons into the islands from graphene keeps the molecules together. The electronic driving forces and stabilization energies are sufficient to overcome the repulsion between the negative charges.
This self-assembly mechanism can be used to tune the electronic properties of graphene layers in devices and control how electrons flow through the graphene. This mechanism permits atomic-scale patterning of electronic properties, which cannot be achieved with conventional lithographic techniques currently being used in the semiconductor industry.
A cost-effective method for mass production of printed flexible graphene-based electronics - Nanowerk - 2/05/2016 The ICN2 NanoBioelectronics and Biosensors Group, led by the ICREA Research Prof Arben Merkoci, presents a versatile, low-cost and customizable method for patterning graphene oxide onto a myriad of substrates. The patented technique, published in ACS Nano ("Water Activated Graphene Oxide Transfer Using Wax Printed Membranes for Fast Patterning of a Touch Sensitive Device"), requires neither a clean room nor organic solvents. It consists of three easy steps: printing, filtering and pressing.
The patented method consists of three steps:
Printing: A nitrocellulose membrane is patterned onto the desired shape using a wax printer. The inverse pattern is printed onto the membrane surface.
Filtering: The wax-printed membrane is set onto the filtering glass and the suspension of graphene oxide is filtered. The wax clogs the membrane pores wherever it is printed.
Pressing: The pattern obtained is transferred by pressure to the desired target substrate.
Graphene Learning Center - MicroPhotonics.com - A state of the art Thermal CVD system designed specifically for graphene and 2D material synthesis.
Microwave synthesis 'zaps' graphene to perfection - Nanowerk - 1/22/2016 Takuzo Aida from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science and colleagues from across Japan theorized that using everyday microwave ovens might improve graphene synthesis. "We envisioned that a perturbation that activates graphite without mechanical force would give highly efficient exfoliation," explains Michio Matsumoto, a co-author of the study. "We chose to irradiate graphite with microwaves because graphite is a good absorber of microwaves and releases heat after irradiation."
"The face-to-face stacking that binds graphene layers in graphite was too strong for conventional imidazolium compounds to prevent aggregation of graphite," explains Matsumoto. "To overcome that stacking force, we designed new ionic liquids inspired by the biological concept of multivalent interactions."
To make ionic ligands that can stick to multiple sites on a graphene layer, the researchers polymerized imidazolium and ethylene oxide atoms into short chains known as oligomers. When they mixed the oligomeric ionic liquid with graphite powder and heated the solution for 30 minutes in a microwave oven, the results were impressive—exfoliation occurred with a yield of 93 per cent and practically all of the graphene produced was in the form of single layers.
"This work brings large-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene one step closer," says Matsumoto.
Osaka Gas halves cost of making graphene-AFF - 1/5/2016 The Japanese gas company developed technology for making graphene from high-purity graphite. The technique involves a high-speed collision of graphite with a mixture of such substances as coal-based fluorene and water.
Osaka Gas has already begun supplying the material on a trial basis to 10 or so companies, including plastic and electronics manufacturers. It aims to bring the price down below 10,000 yen ($82.39) per kilogram by beginning full-scale production within the year. Production will likely take place at an Osaka research center for the time being, with additional equipment possibly added depending on demand.
Graphene is usually made by connecting carbon atoms from gas containing carbon in a vacuum. But graphene so produced fetches more than 20,000 yen per kilogram.
Edible salt crystals: a cheap, green, water soluble substrate for graphene synthesis - Materials Views - 12/22/2015 Currently, various synthetic methods for graphene have been explored, mainly including mechanical and chemical exfoliation of graphite, sublimation of epitaxial SiC, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using hydrocarbons. Among these, CVD growth of graphene on metallic or ceramic substrates using different hydrocarbon sources has been the most promising method for obtaining high-quality graphene.
However, when graphene is grown on a metallic or ceramic substrate, a wet-chemical transfer process is inevitably involved to remove the substrates, which leads to damage to or even consumption of the substrates. The remaining waste requires recycling, will increases the total cost of graphene produced in this manner.
Furthermore, in the etching transfer of metal substrates, in which a polymer supporting film (poly methyl methacrylate in most cases) is coated onto the graphene, there is always the risk of additional contamination.
Therefore, a novel, low-cost substrate, and an easy and efficient approach for dissolving the substrate after the graphene growth, is required to obtain pure graphene without any impurities.
Professor Zhongfan Liu and co-workers from College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University have now investigated such a substrate, where micron-size sodium chloride crystals have been used as a water soluble, recyclable substrate for CVD growth of few layers of graphene.
In their CVD process, the six facets the NaCl crystals were considered to serve as CVD growth fronts for graphene synthesis. The commercial NaCl salt (average size: 300 µm) was firstly recrystallized to obtain NaCl powder with an average crystal size of 10 µm before being introduced into the low-temperature zone of a two-zones furnace.
The high-temperature zone was heated to 850 °C to promote the thermal cracking of the carbon source (ethylene) and graphene was synthesized over NaCl powder in the low-temperature zone (700 °C). The low-temperature zone was maintained at this temperature, which is much lower than the melting point of NaCl (801 °C), in order to prevent melting of the NaCl powder. The graphene growth on NaCl was completed in 2 h and the furnace was then cooled down to room temperature. Free-standing graphene powder was then obtained after dissolving the core NaCl in water.
They also found that when large NaCl crystals (>300 µm) are used, no graphene is grown, which means that the small crystal size plays a vital role in the graphene growth mechanism.
The grown graphene crystals present cubic shapes ranging from 1 to 30 µm in length, retaining the original shapes and sizes of NaCl crystals. The cuboidal graphene was characterized using different analysis techniques such as SEM, TEM, Raman, AFM images and they found that graphene with less than 5 layers accounted for 70% of the total synthesized.
The outstanding results of this synthetic method pave a new path for facile and low-cost preparation of graphene with few layers in large quantities, and bring out a bright future for practical application of graphene, especially in areas such as polymer nanocomposites, energy storage (supercapacitors, batteries), conductive inks for printed electronics, catalysis and water purification.
Growing Graphene On A Molten Bed-Asian Scientist - 12/16/2015 Using widely available soda-lime glass as a substrate, researchers have grown uniform sheets of graphene that can be used in heating devices.
Professor Liu Zhongfan, of the College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and his team, broke through some of this barrier in 2014, with a proposed direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene on solid dielectric substrates. Previously, synthesis of large area graphene had to go through a tedious and disruptive transfer process to detach the underlying metal substrates.
Liu’s group's latest research has taken this method further. They are growing graphene on a cheap, widely used glass called soda-lime glass. Researchers first melt the glass to produce a molten bed. In the next step, they allow graphene film to be grown on the molten glasses. The resulting graphene disk is uniform, continuous and could be used in small heating devices. This transparent sheet looks from its appearance like a thin piece of glass.
Could Borophene Rival Graphene? - IEEE Spectrum - 12/17/2015 "We found an easy and inexpensive technique which allows the broader scientific community to create borophene," says Andrew Mannix, a Ph.D. candidate in materials science and engineering at Northwestern University and a researcher at Argonne National Laboratory.
The inexpensive technique involves growing the borophene inside an ultrahigh vacuum chamber that keeps the experimental conditions clean and devoid of possible contaminant materials. Mannix and his colleagues chose to use silver as an underlying "substrate" layer for borophene to grow on because silver does not readily react chemically with boron.
An electron beam evaporator heated the boron material to the point where it evaporated and eventually deposited on the silver. Experiments showed that the borophene deposits grew the best when the silver’s temperature was maintained at about 550 degrees C, but growth could be achieved at temperatures ranging between 450 degrees C and 700 degrees C. The research is detailed in the 18 Dec 2015 issue of the journal Science.
Cambridge-led team advances graphene production - Optics.org - 12/16/2015 Researchers involved in a €10.6 million European research project claim to have demonstrated a cost-effective way to make graphene on an industrial scale.
According to the GRAFOL project co-ordinator John Robertson, from the University of Cambridge, the key result of the four-year effort is the development of a roll-to-roll production tool capable of making large sheets of the single-layer carbon material.
In a post on the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 web site, he said: "This is the first time something like this has been realized commercially; other developments in this field have mainly appeared in scientific journals. We have shown that the tool, which operates at atmospheric pressure and at reduced operating temperature, is the best route to low-cost manufacture."
He added: "We demonstrated that this works, and that it is flexible, but the main point here is cost. Nobody will use graphene if it costs many times more than other materials. This is the big deal about the R2R tool; that it can lower the cost."
The project team also believes that graphene could be used as a substitute for transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes used in organic LEDs (OLEDs), enabling flexible designs while helping reduce the reliance on scarce supplies of indium.
Central to the project is the Germany-based company Aixtron, which is best known as a key supplier of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) tools that are widely used to deposit active semiconductor layers in LED and laser diode structures.
As well as its realization of a roll-to-roll tool, the team showed that it is possible to adapt the chemical vapor deposition method to grow graphene on 300 mm-diameter silicon wafers – the standard size currently used in the semiconductor industry. That suggests the potential to integrate graphene in silicon photonics platforms.
However, Robertson also stressed that there are still some major challenges to overcome before graphene can become part of a truly volume device manufacturing process, saying: “Applying graphene to other substrates still requires a transfer process that forms a big log-jam and there needs to be a large-scale commercial demonstration of this step.”
As well as potentially benefiting from the new graphene production method, photonics technology also played a central role in the GRAFOL project, with optical scattering spectroscopy used to monitor graphene layer growth.
Research team finds way to produce large-area graphene 100 times cheaper-Phys.org - 11/19/2015 Graphene is often produced by a process known as chemical vapour deposition, or CVD, which turns gaseous reactants into a film of graphene on a special surface known as a substrate.
The research team used a similar process to create high-quality graphene across the surface of commercially-available copper foils of the type often used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The ultra-smooth surface of the copper provided an excellent bed for the graphene to form upon.
They found that the graphene they produced offered a stark improvement in the electrical and optical performance of transistors which they made compared to similar materials produced from the older process.
Dr Dahiya, of the University of Glasgow's School of Engineering, said: "The commercially-available copper we used in our process retails for around one dollar per square metre, compared to around $115 for a similar amount of the copper currently used in graphene production. This more expensive form of copper often required preparation before it can be used, adding further to the cost of the process."
"Our process produces high-quality graphene at low cost, taking us one step closer to creating affordable new electronic devices with a wide range of applications, from the smart cities of the future to mobile healthcare."
National Graphene Institute reveals first results with industrial partner-University of Manchester - 10/08/2015 Morgan Advanced Materials joined forces last year with The University of Manchester – where graphene was first isolated a decade ago – to explore the potential of the material, with a full-time team based at the University’s National Graphene Institute (NGI). Morgan is one of the Institute’s first industrial partners.
The project is gathering pace, with early work focusing on scaling up Manchester’s patented technology to produce graphene. This process sees molecules driven between the layers of a graphite electrode to separate them.
The process is radically different from chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods, which are used to grow individual graphene layers upon a substrate, and generally require high processing temperatures with low throughput.
Measurement technique could enhance graphene production-The Engineer - 9/30/2015 A non-invasive measurement technique developed by researchers in the US could aid in the production of defect-free graphene it is claimed.
Researchers at Pennsylvania’s Lehigh University have reported a breakthrough in efforts to non-invasively characterise the properties of graphene.
The group, led by Prof Slava V. Rotkin, used Raman spectroscopy, a powerful technique that collects light scattered off a material’s surface, and statistical analysis to take nanoscale measurements of the strain present at each pixel on the material’s surface.
Breakthrough with New Technique for Graphene Production-Armed with Science - 9/23/2015 The new technique, called nanoCVD, involves growing graphene in an industrial cold wall Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system that was recently developed by the UK graphene company Moorfield. The method is based on a concept already used for other manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, and demonstrates, for the very first time, a way to mass produce graphene with present facilities. The researchers state that their method can grow graphene 100 times faster, reduce costs by 99 percent and enhance the electronic quality of the graphene.
Professor Monica Craciun from Exeter said the new discovery could pave the way for "a graphene-driven industrial revolution."
Creating Large 2D Graphene Sheets-Controlled Environments - 9/21/2015 The group has determined a way to make large sheets of one such material, called molybdenum telluride, or MoTe2. The team says their method is also likely to work for many similar 2D materials, and could make widespread applications feasible.
The findings have been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society by a team including MIT postdoc Lin Zhou; professors Mildred Dresselhaus, Jing Kong, and Tomás Palacios; and eight others at MIT, the China University of Petroleum, Central South University in China, the National Tsing-hua University in Taiwan, and Saitama University and Tohoku University in Japan.
The new method is based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and makes it possible to create sheets of any thickness, and of a size limited only by the dimensions of the CVD chamber used for deposition.
One challenge the team had to overcome was that the atoms of molybdenum telluride are very weakly bound to each other, so the tendency of the two precursor materials to form molybdenum telluride is low. "This makes it more challenging to make, compared to other similar materials," Zhou says.
The researchers were able to overcome this by using several stages of deposition, beginning with a layer of pure molybdenum. "This method makes it easy, because you only need to control one material," Zhou says. This step is followed by oxidation of that layer; this material is then removed and powdered tellurium is added, vaporized in a carrier gas of hydrogen and argon, at a temperature of 700 degrees Celsius. The use of hydrogen in the process, the team found, is crucial to producing a uniform MoTe2 film.
Graphene Revolution using Liquid Metal from AGP-Printed Electronics World - 9/11/2015 Professor Piotr Kula from Advanced Graphene Products (AGP) and the Lodz University of Technology being interviewed by Thomas Keenan (IDTechEx) at Graphene & 2D Materials Europe . The company, using a production method created by the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (Technical University Lodz) has developed an unique, extremely efficient graphene production process.
Graphene is now grown on liquid metal. This new technology shifts graphene production to an industrial level. It is now possible to manufacture large, high quality graphene sheets for a reasonable price. Using liquid metal also results in superior qualities never seen before.
Scientists grow high-quality graphene from tea tree extra-Phys.org - 08/21/2015 In a new study, researchers have grown graphene from the tea tree plant Melaleuca alternifolia, the same plant used to make essential oils in traditional medicine. The researchers demonstrated that they could fabricate large-area, nearly defect-free graphene films from tea tree oil in as little as a few seconds to a few minutes, whereas current growth methods usually take several hours. Unlike current methods, the new method also works at relatively low temperatures, does not require catalysts, and does not rely on methane or other nonrenewable, toxic, or explosive precursors.
The scientists, Prof. Mohan V. Jacob at James Cook University in Queensland, Australia, and collaborators from institutions in Australia, Singapore, Japan, and the US, have published a paper on the new technique for growing graphene from tea tree extract in a recent issue of Nano Letters.
For growing graphene, the researchers used a technique called plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The researchers fed the vaporized tea tree extract into a heated tube, much in the same way as done with methane gas in previous versions. As soon as they switched the plasma on using electrodes, the vapor was almost instantly transformed into graphene film.
How to Make Graphene Using Supersonic Buckyballs-MIT Tech Review - 8/13/2015 ...The new technique gets around these problems. The team accelerates the buckyballs by releasing them into a helium or hydrogen gas which they allow to expand at supersonic speeds, carrying the carbon balls with it. That gives the buckyballs energies of around 40 keV without changing their internal dynamics (unlike ordinary heating which dramatically increases the molecular vibrations).
These guys then aim the buckyballs at a copper sheet and watch them smash into it like flies onto a windscreen. The result is a fairly even coating of graphene-like material in a single layer.
This material has its own idiosyncrasies. For a start, it is not made of regular hexagons, like perfect graphene. Instead it also contains pentagons which come from the original buckyball structures. That’s potentially useful because the pentagons could introduce a band gap into the material, something materials scientists have longed hoped to create in graphene.
Graphene’s Promise Persists; The extraordinary performance characteristics of graphene is driving a plethora of process developments for solving its production challenges.-R&D - 8/11/2015 “Reduction of graphene oxide and liquid exfoliation of graphite provide small graphene flakes, while CVD processes yield large intact graphene sheets,” says Ivan Vlassiouk, research scientist in the Energy and Transportation Science Div. at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. "The graphene oxide and liquid exfoliation processes result in lower costs, and are basically ready for scale-up. However, the drawback is the large size of the flakes (1 to 10 µm or larger) and a large number of defects in graphene sheets. The current CVD approach for graphene synthesis gives the best quality/cost ratio."
Using their CVD process, Vlassiouk’s team has fabricated polymer composites containing 2-in-by-2-in sheets of one-atom- thick hexagonally arranged carbon atoms. "Before our work, superb mechanical properties of graphene were only able to be shown at a micro scale," says Vlassiouk. "We have extended this to a larger scale, which considerably extends the potential applications and market for graphene." The composite structure they produced contains multiple graphene layers, each sandwiched between polymer layers. The nanocomposite laminate is electrically conductive, with graphene loading that’s 50 times less compared to other current state-of-the-art graphene samples.
Copper-Assisted Direct Growth of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets-Director's Talk - 8/04/2015 Vertical graphene (VG) nanosheets are directly grown below 500 °C on glass substrates by a one-step copper-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. A piece of copper foil is located around a glass substrate as a catalyst in the process. The effect of the copper catalyst on the vertical graphene is evaluated in terms of film morphology, growth rate, carbon density in the plasma and film resistance. The growth rate of the vertical graphene is enhanced by a factor of 5.6 with the copper catalyst with denser vertical graphene. The analysis of optical emission spectra suggests that the carbon radical density is increased with the copper catalyst. Highly conductive VG films having 800 Ω/ are grown on glass substrates with Cu catalyst at a relatively low temperature.
New Way To Make Quality Graphene Boosts Commercial Viability-Tech Times - 7/31/2015 The technique, which researchers described in a paper published in the journal Science Advances, makes it possible to grow large sheets of this completely 2-dimensional honeycomb of carbon atoms at considerably lower costs. In their report, the researchers wrote that they see their work as "leading the way toward a scalable technology for high-quality graphene devices."
With this new method, it is possible to grow large sheets of graphene atop a copper surface by placing carbon-containing molecules of methane – the same molecule that has gained notoriety as a greenhouse gas – in a specialized furnace.
Previous versions of the this technique required a new piece of copper each time, making it prohibitively expensive for many commercial applications. In this new paper, the researchers report a way to reuse the copper, making it much more affordable.
New method for tweaking properties of graphene-Engineering & Technology Magazine - 7/30/2015 The researchers used a technique called electrochemical exfoliation to strip graphene layers from graphite flakes. By varying the voltage they discovered they could change the resulting graphene’s thickness, flake area, and number of defects – all of which alter its electrical and mechanical properties.
More efficient process to produce graphene developed-Science Daily - 7/23/2015 Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and University of Western Australia researchers have developed a new process to develop few-layer graphene for use in energy storage and other material applications that is faster, potentially scalable and surmounts some of the current graphene production limitations.
For faster, larger graphene add a liquid layer-Phys.org - 7/15/2015
Millimetre-sized crystals of high-quality graphene can be made in minutes instead of hours using a new scalable technique, Oxford University researchers have demonstrated.
In just 15 minutes the method can produce large graphene crystals around 2-3 millimetres in size that it would take up to 19 hours to produce using current chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques in which carbon in gas reacts with, for example, copper to form graphene.
Graphene promises to be a 'wonder material' for building new technologies because of its combination of strength, flexibility, electrical properties, and chemical resistance. But this promise will only be realised if it can be produced cost-effectively on a commercial scale.
The researchers took a thin film of silica deposited on a platinum foil which, when heated, reacts to create a layer of platinum silicide. This layer melts at a lower temperature than either platinum or silica creating a thin liquid layer that smooths out nanoscale 'valleys' in the platinum so that carbon atoms in methane gas brushing the surface are more inclined to form large flakes of graphene.
A report of the research is published in the journal Nature Communications.
'Not only can we make millimetre-sized graphene flakes in minutes but this graphene is of a comparable quality to anything other methods are able to produce,' said Professor Nicole Grobert of Oxford University's Department of Materials, who led the research. 'Because it is allowed to grow naturally in single graphene crystals there are none of the grain boundaries that can adversely affect the mechanical and electrical properties of the material.'
Researchers find cheap way to synthesis graphene-Mehr News Agency - 7/04/2015 TEHRAN, Jul. 04 (MNA) – Researchers at University of Tabriz have discovered a simple and inexpensive way to synthesis graphene, a crystalline allotrope of carbon.
Dr. Hamed Asgharzadeh, the project manager, maintained that the project has found a simple and inexpensive solution to resolve a number of the main issues in synthesising graphene, adding that the proposed solution will both reduce time and production costs, as well as provide the possibility to produce graphene in large quantities....
He added that their project introduces a simple technique in which ultrasound waves are used in specific intervals during oxidation, thus no graphite will remain unoxidized.
Chemical vapor deposition enables production of pure, uniform coatings of metals or polymers-Phys.org - 6/19/2015 In a sense, says MIT chemical engineering professor Karen Gleason, you can trace the technology of chemical vapor deposition, or CVD, all the way back to prehistory: "When the cavemen lit a lamp and soot was deposited on the wall of a cave," she says, that was a rudimentary form of CVD.
Today, CVD is a basic tool of manufacturing—used in everything from sunglasses to potato-chip bags—and is fundamental to the production of much of today's electronics. It is also a technique subject to constant refining and expansion, pushing materials research in new directions—such as the production of large-scale sheets of graphene, or the development of solar cells that could be "printed" onto a sheet of paper or plastic.
In that latter area, Gleason, who also serves as MIT's associate provost, has been a pioneer. She developed what had traditionally been a high-temperature process used to deposit metals under industrial conditions into a low-temperature process that could be used for more delicate materials, such as organic polymers. That development, a refinement of a method invented in the 1950s by Union Carbide to produce protective polymer coatings, is what enabled, for example, the printable solar cells that Gleason and others have developed.
New technique from Oxford University produces high-quality sheets of graphene-TheEngineer - 6/17/2015 Materials scientists at Oxford University have developed a technique for producing graphene in large high-quality sheets, its technology commercialisation arm has said.
The invention, which is in the patent application process, permits the manufacture of commercial scale graphene sheets using a transition metal substrate combined with an intermediate silicon containing liquid film.
Graphene sheets are made using chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Large, high-quality graphene flakes are produced. Synthesis times are reduced by 50 times, Isis claimed, adding that it was looking for commercial partners.
“We are pursuing research into graphene and other important tailored nanomaterials with end use applications very much in mind, and in close collaboration with SMEs and internationally leading industry partners,” said Prof Nicole Grobert, head of the nanomaterials by design team at Oxford Materials.
"I believe this approach is the fastest way for commercial adoption of the new materials and more specifically nanomaterials, such as graphene..."
Graphene nanoribbons produced by novel top-down and bottom-up hybrid process-Nanowerk - 6/02/2015 Institute of Industrial Science Professor Shoji Takeuchi and Project Assistant Professor Won Chul Lee first found that gold(I) cyanide nanowires grow directly on pristine graphene in aqueous solution at room temperature, the molecules aligning themselves with the zigzag lattice directions of the graphene. The researchers then fabricated graphene nanoribbons with zigzag-edged directions by employing the synthesized nanowires as an etching mask. The graphene nanoribbons created were 10 nm in width and as thin as a single carbon atom. Both the nanowires and graphene nanoribbons formed along the zigzag lattice, offering a potential method for controlling the formation direction of graphene nanoribbons, something that had not been realized until now.
This result is now available in Nature Nanotechnology ("Graphene-templated directional growth of an inorganic nanowire").
DOE Makes Graphene Ready for Prime Time-Composites Manufacturing - 5/25/2015 A team at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has found a way to apply graphene to large-scale commercial use. In the past, researchers have only used tiny flakes of graphene, a polymer matrix composite, due to its impracticality at a large scale. The team, led by ORNL’s Ivan Vlassiouk, has used chemical vapor deposition to make a nanocomposite with much larger sheets of graphene than most use.
Previously, researchers had difficulty dispersing graphene due to small sample sizes. Vlassiouk’s method could ultimately change how graphene and other nanomaterials are perceived and used.
"Before our work, superb mechanical properties of graphene were shown at a micro level," said Vlassiouk. "We have extended this to a large scale, which considerably extends the potential applications and market for graphene."
If Vlassiouk and his team prove the ability to scale large quantities of graphene while simultaneously cutting costs, graphene’s application could extend into new markets, including aerospace, the automotive sector, electronics, energy and manufacturing.
Oxford Instruments CVD Equipment Used for Graphene and 2D Materials Research in Institutes Across Europe and US-AZO Nano - 5/21/2015 Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) has been one of the most successful techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes and other 1D and 2D nanomaterials. The Nanofab is ideal for this field of research as it combines several essential features for high performance growth such as a high temperature heater capable of processing up to 200 mm wafers, shower head technology, automatic load lock for wafer handling as well as flexible options for liquid/solid precursor delivery. (Multiple orders have recently been received from prestigious research centres in Europe and the USA, including the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and University College, London.)
How to make continuous rolls of graphene-R&D Mag - 5/21/2015 ..new process described in Scientific Reports by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Univ. of Michigan. MIT mechanical engineering Assoc. Prof. A. John Hart, the paper’s senior author, says the new roll-to-roll manufacturing process described by his team addresses the fact that for many proposed applications of graphene and other 2-D materials to be practical, "you’re going to need to make acres of it, repeatedly and in a cost-effective manner."
The new process is an adaptation of a chemical vapor deposition method already used at MIT and elsewhere to make graphene—using a small vacuum chamber into which a vapor containing carbon reacts on a horizontal substrate, such as a copper foil. The new system uses a similar vapor chemistry, but the chamber is in the form of two concentric tubes, one inside the other, and the substrate is a thin ribbon of copper that slides smoothly over the inner tube.
Poland to cash in on graphene production? -Radio Poland - 5/20/2015 Polish scientists from the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology have developed a method of producing large sheets of graphene that is characterised by excellent quality. Agnieszka Laszczuk reports if Poland has a chance to make graphene a speciality.
ORNL Demonstrates First Large-Scale Graphene Composite Fabrication-ORNL Press Release - 5/14/2015 $ Now, using chemical vapor deposition, a team led by ORNL’s Ivan Vlassiouk has fabricated polymer composites containing 2-inch-by-2-inch sheets of the one-atom thick hexagonally arranged carbon atoms.
ORNL’s ultrastrong graphene features layers of graphene and polymers and is an effective conductor of electricity.
Carbon Sciences Announces Successful Production of High Quality Graphene Using a Novel Low Cost CVD Process-CNN Money - 5/11/2015 The UCSB research team led by, Dr. Kaustav Banerjee, has successfully engineered a low cost CVD system that is optimized for graphene production using proprietary processes, catalysts and techniques. By fully optimizing and innovating various steps in the process the team has produced very high quality graphene. The system can also be used to customize doping to create application specific graphene.
High Quality, Scalable Graphene Production - Powerpoint on comercialization from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Promoter-assisted chemical vapor deposition of graphene-Science Direct - 2/2014 The synthesis of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising approach for producing graphene for novel applications. Especially graphene synthesis on Copper substrates has resulted in high quality, large area graphene growth. This method, however, exhibit limitations in achievable graphene quality due to the low catalytic activity of the growth substrate and occurring catalyst deactivation at high graphene coverage. We here study the effect of adding a material to promote graphene growth on Cu. Catalytic materials such as Nickel and Molybdenum were found to affect the graphene quality and growth rate positively. The origin for this enhancement is a decrease of the energy barrier of catalytic methane decomposition through a process of distributed catalysis. This process can also help overcome the issue of catalyst deactivation and increase film continuity. These findings not only provide aroute for improving the CVD synthesis of graphene but also answer fundamental questions about graphene growth
A new way to make sheets of graphene - A new process for making graphene directly on a nonmetal substrate. First, a nickel layer is applied to the material, in this case silicon dioxide (SiO2). Then carbon is deposited on the surface, where it forms layers of graphene above and beneath the SiO2. The top layer of graphene, attached to the nickel, easily peels away using tape (or, for industrial processes, a layer of adhesive material), leaving behind just the lower layer of graphene stuck to the substrate.
Ultrasonic Preparation of Graphene Materials-AZO Nano - 03/05/2013 Utilizing a high intensity cavitation field, pure graphene nanosheets were synthesized from natural graphite. This cavitation field was created by Hielscher's ultrasonic processor UIP1000hd in a high-pressure ultrasonic reactor at 5 bar. It is claimed that when graphene is prepared ultrasonically, its quality is significantly higher than graphene obtained through Hummer's technique, wherein graphite is exfoliated and then oxidized.
Graphene–Better, Faster, Cheaper - a new method that employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for rapidly producing high-mobility, large-area (~ 1-cm2) monolayer graphene on copper in a single step at low temperature (LT) without active
A New Method for Mass Producing High Quality Graphene-Materials360nline -4/2014 The new method reduced the time it takes to make the material—from 10 days to about three-and-a-half hours.
Scalable graphene synthesised by plasma-assisted selective reaction on silicon carbide for device applications.-Nanoscale - 11/21/2014 $ Graphene, a two-dimensional material with honeycomb arrays of carbon atoms, has shown outstanding physical properties that make it a promising candidate material for a variety of electronic applications. To date, several issues related to the material synthesis and device fabrication need to be overcome. Despite the fact that large-area graphene films synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) can be grown with relatively few defects, the required transfer process creates wrinkles and polymer residues that greatly reduce its performance in device applications. Graphene synthesised on silicon carbide (SiC) has shown outstanding mobility and has been successfully used to develop ultra-high frequency transistors; however, this fabrication method is limited due to the use of costly ultra-high vacuum (UHV) equipment that can reach temperatures over 1500 °C. Here, we show a simple and novel approach to synthesise graphene on SiC substrates that greatly reduces the temperature and vacuum requirements and allows the use of equipment commonly used in the semiconductor processing industry. In this work, we used plasma treatment followed by annealing in order to obtain large-scale graphene films from bulk SiC. After exposure to N2 plasma, the annealing process promotes the reaction of nitrogen ions with Si and the simultaneous condensation of C on the surface of SiC. Eventually, a uniform, large-scale, n-type graphene film with remarkable transport behaviour on the SiC wafer is achieved. Furthermore, graphene field effect transistors (FETs) with high carrier mobilities on SiC were also demonstrated in this study.
CVD Files Provisional Patents for CVD Graphene Scale-Up - 1/9/2014 CVD Equipment Corporation ("CVD"), a leading provider of custom chemical vapor deposition systems, today announced that it has filed provisional patents covering production of larger size and higher quality CVD graphene in increased quantity and at a lower cost.
Leonard A. Rosenbaum, President and CEO of CVD stated, "Our customers asked us to provide solutions enabling them to manufacture larger size, increased quantity and better quality CVD graphene films at reduced costs to enable commercialization of their intellectual property (IP) graphene applications. We are pleased to report that we have developed classes of solutions that address these needs and can be tailored for different graphene applications. Benefits of our IP for a given CVD process tube include capacity increase and size scale-up of graphene production. EasyTube® CVD graphene systems, capable of processing up to 200 or 300 mm single substrates (depending upon the platform), incorporating selected embodiments of our now patent pending IP will be shipping in Q2-2014. Additional platforms are currently under development."
Graphene water filter turns whisky clear Phys.org - 11/14/2017 In the newly developed ultrathin membranes, graphene-oxide sheets are assembled in such a way that pinholes formed during the assembly are interconnected by graphene nanochannels, which produces an atomic-scale sieve allowing the large flow of solvents through the membrane.
Rolo debuts 618 gram racing frame with graphene enhancement - Cycling Industry News - 11/7/2017
Manufactured in Rolo’s partner facility at 77 Composites in Germany, the size 56 frame tip the scales at just 618 grams unpainted, or 679 grams clear-coated and painted, as seen in London last week.
Heat-dissipating shoes with graphene soles - Phys.org - 11/02/2017 In this innovative shoe, flakes consisting of several graphene layers are added to polyurethane used in the soles. Laboratory tests show an augmented heat dispersion, greater waterproofing and enhanced antibacterial properties. Combining these effects with a ventilation system provided a better user experience. This prototype shoe was presented at the International Footwear Exhibition in Milan.
Graphene foam gets big and tough: Nanotube-reinforced material can be shaped, is highly conductive - Phys.org - 2/14/2017
A chunk of conductive graphene foam reinforced by carbon nanotubes can support more than 3,000 times its own weight and easily bounce back to its original height, according to Rice University scientists.
Better yet, it can be made in just about any shape and size, they reported, demonstrating a screw-shaped piece of the highly conductive foam.
The Rice lab of chemist James Tour tested its new "rebar graphene" as a highly porous, conductive electrode in lithium ion capacitors and found it to be mechanically and chemically stable.
The research appears in the American Chemical Society journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces.
Everything You Need to Know About the Future of Graphene - All About Circuits - 12/21/2016 Graphene is rapidly making its way into new advancements across several fields. Propelled by a graphene-focused initiative created by the European Commission, it's seeing new use in flexible antennae, helmet fabrication, and even methods to treat spinal injuries.
Applied Graphene strikes deal to reinforce fishing rods - Financial Times - 10/14/2016 Applied Graphene will supply tiny particles to reinforce fishing rods manufactured by Century Composites. The company produces graphene "nanoplatelets" and disperses them into other products such as polymers, coatings and oils.
Graphene 3D Lab Develops and Patents State-of-the-Art G6-ImpactTM Graphene Composite - 3D Print - 10/14/2016 Graphene 3D Lab’s latest development is the state-of-the-art G6-ImpactTM, a graphene composite material created for the automotive, robotics, drone, and aerospace industries, as well as various military sectors. The G6-ImpactTM features exceptional rigidity and absorption, making it ideal for components required to withstand impact and vibration. The material is especially useful for safety-critical applications requiring vibration resistance on rigid surfaces, such as various sporting gear, power tool handles, automotive parts, and aerospace components.
MIT Researcher's Graphene-Based Designs Hold Promise for Water Purification - AZO Nano - 9/01/2016 Karnik, an associate professor in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, is creating a new microfluidic technology that is capable of sorting cells from small blood samples quickly and easily. The microfluidic channel’s surface is patterned to direct specific cells to roll toward a reservoir for additional analysis, while allowing the remaining blood sample to pass through.
Using this design, Karnik hopes to build portable, disposable devices that doctors could use, even in remote areas of the world, to rapidly diagnose conditions of numerous diseases, such as malaria and sepsis.
Karnik’s team is also analyzing issues relating to water purification. The team are designing filters using single layers of graphene (atom-thin sheets of carbon), which are known for their outstanding strength.
Karnik has derived a method to manipulate the size and concentration of pores in graphene, and is customizing individual layers to filter out tiny and otherwise elusive contaminants. The team have also effectively filtered salts using the method and plan to create smart graphene filters for water purification and other applications.
Engineers treat printed graphene with lasers to enable paper electronics - Phys.org - 9/01/2016 The researchers in Jonathan Claussen's lab at Iowa State University (who like to call themselves nanoengineers) have been looking for ways to use graphene and its amazing properties in their sensors and other technologies.
Graphene is a wonder material: The carbon honeycomb is just an atom thick. It's great at conducting electricity and heat; it's strong and stable. But researchers have struggled to move beyond tiny lab samples for studying its material properties to larger pieces for real-world applications.
Recent projects that used inkjet printers to print multi-layer graphene circuits and electrodes had the engineers thinking about using it for flexible, wearable and low-cost electronics. For example, "Could we make graphene at scales large enough for glucose sensors?" asked Suprem Das, an Iowa State postdoctoral research associate in mechanical engineering and an associate of the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.
But there were problems with the existing technology. Once printed, the graphene had to be treated to improve electrical conductivity and device performance. That usually meant high temperatures or chemicals - both could degrade flexible or disposable printing surfaces such as plastic films or even paper.
Das and Claussen came up with the idea of using lasers to treat the graphene. Claussen, an Iowa State assistant professor of mechanical engineering and an Ames Laboratory associate, worked with Gary Cheng, an associate professor at Purdue University's School of Industrial Engineering, to develop and test the idea.
And it worked: They found treating inkjet-printed, multi-layer graphene electric circuits and electrodes with a pulsed-laser process improves electrical conductivity without damaging paper, polymers or other fragile printing surfaces.
Researchers use microwaves to produce high-quality graphene - Phys.org - 9/01/2016 Rutgers University engineers have found a simple method for producing high-quality graphene that can be used in next-generation electronic and energy devices: bake the compound in a microwave oven.
The discovery is documented in a study published online today in the journal Science.
"This is a major advance in the graphene field," said Manish Chhowalla, professor and associate chair in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in Rutgers' School of Engineering. "This simple microwave treatment leads to exceptionally high quality graphene with properties approaching those in pristine graphene."
The discovery was made by post-doctoral associates and undergraduate students in the department, said Chhowalla, who is also the director of the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology. Having undergraduates as co-authors of a Science paper is rare but he said "the Rutgers Materials Science and Engineering Department and the School of Engineering at Rutgers cultivate a culture of curiosity driven research in students with fresh ideas who are not afraid to try something new."
Graphene - 100 times tougher than steel - conducts electricity better than copper and rapidly dissipates heat, making it useful for many applications. Large-scale production of graphene is necessary for applications such as printable electronics, electrodes for batteries and catalysts for fuel cells.
Graphene comes from graphite, a carbon-based material used by generations of students and teachers in the form of pencils. Graphite consists of sheets or layers of graphene.
The easiest way to make large quantities of graphene is to exfoliate graphite into individual graphene sheets by using chemicals. The downside of this approach is that side reactions occur with oxygen - forming graphene oxide that is electrically non-conducting, which makes it less useful for products.
Removing oxygen from graphene oxide to obtain high-quality graphene has been a major challenge over the past two decades for the scientific community working on graphene. Oxygen distorts the pristine atomic structure of graphene and degrades its properties.
Chhowalla and his group members found that baking the exfoliated graphene oxide for just one second in a 1,000-watt microwave oven, like those used in households across America, can eliminate virtually all of the oxygen from graphene oxide.
Researchers use graphene to heal damaged muscles - Mehr News - 7/31/2016 Iranian researchers from Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tarbiat Modarres University and Sharif University of Technology used graphene to synthesize a scaffold to treat damaged muscles.
Single layer Graphene Oxide goes on sale - 3D Printing Industry - 7/29/2016 Graphene 3D Lab Inc has put a new material made of single-layer Graphene Oxide on sale. Is this the Graphene breakthrough we’ve been waiting for? Not yet, but we’re getting there.
...This new material dissolves easily in organic solvents to produce a final solution with a high concentration. It can then be used to create Graphene-reinforced 3D printing inks, as well as to reinforce polymers and nanocomposites. The solution will undoubtedly be used to coat a vast amount of materials and could help produce everything from stronger products to ‘smart clothing’.
Graphene Used in Packaging to Block Moisture and Protect Products - AZO Nano - 7/28/2016 To ensure that certain products such as electronics and medicines are protected from this, scientists have designed a new packaging method that implements a single layer of graphene. In ACS Nano, researchers present a report on their material, which decreases by a million fold the amount of water that can pass through.
...A single layer of graphene was synthesized by using chemical vapor deposition, and the researchers also used an uncomplicated and scalable process to transfer the graphene to a polymer film. Water vapor penetrated through the material at the target rate of less than 10-6 grams per square meter per day.
New graphene super batteries charge up in seconds and last virtually forever - InHabitat - 7/25/2016 With the aid of one of the strongest materials on Earth, a researcher at Australia’s Swinburne University has created a battery that charges up super fast and can be used over and over and over again, without losing efficiency. Researcher Han Lin developed the battery using a form of carbon called graphene, which is commonly heralded as one of the strongest materials on the planet. The new supercapacitor addresses many of the shortcomings of traditional lithium ion batteries, beating them in charging time, lifespan, and also environmental impact.
The new supercapacitor’s ultra-quick charging time—just seconds compared to the minutes or hours needed by a lithium-based battery—is its primary selling point, as it eliminates the inconvenience of long charging times. The graphene-enhanced battery also costs less than a traditional lithium ion battery over the course of its lifetime, due to its unique ability to withstand more recharges without losing strength.
The world's first graphene car is unveiled in Manchester - BBC News - 7/22/2016 The BAC Mono spearheads an exhibition to highlight the future technology of graphene, which is 200 times stronger than steel.
Graphene frames are coming, and they could weigh just 350g - Cycling Weekly - 7/14/2016
Revolutions don’t come along that often in cycling, but Dassi, a UK bike manufacturer focusing on bike customisation, claims to have started one with the presentation of the world’s first bike frame containing graphene.
Launched yesterday from the company’s headquarters in Hartley Wintney in Hampshire, the company’s frame weighs 750g, although it claims that this could be more than halved to just 350g at some point in the future.
Graphene enables optoelectronics on regular paper - Nanowerk - 6/08/2016 Reporting their work in the June 1, 2016 online edition of ACS Photonics ("Graphene-Enabled Optoelectronics on Paper"), first-authored by Polat, a team from Bilkent University (where Polat worked prior to ICFO) shows that multilayer graphene on paper can be used as an electrically reconfigurable medium for display applications.
"We anticipate that our results provide a significant step for realization of low-cost, disposable and ubiquitous optoelectronics on unconventional substrates," notes Polat.
Graphene-based smart contact lens works as self-powered biosensor - Nanowerk - 6/06/2016 The latest example is a graphene-based wireless sensor that could make 24-hour healthcare easier to achieve by enabling wireless monitoring of various biomedical events in order to gain a more comprehensive assessment of the wearer's healthcare status.
This novel device, which detects chemical/molecular agents and lengths of exposure, can be used as lightweight and transparent wearable or bio-implantable electronic sensor. It may provide an inexpensive way to detect in real-time the biomedical of interest.
"In our recent work we have demonstrated that graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) can offer simultaneous radio-frequency modulation, chemical sensing and memory effects in a single component," Pai-Yen Chen, Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Wayne State University, tells Nanowerk.
Chen, together with Prof. Deji Akinwande at the University of Texas at Austin, and their teams, have reported their findings in the May 9, 2016 online edition of Nature's Microsystems & Nanoengineering ("Chemical-sensitive graphene modulator with a memory effect for internet-of-things applications"; open access), first authored by Dr. Haiyu Haung at Maxim Integrated Corp. Co-authors also include Prof. Mark M. C. Cheng at the Wayne State University and Dr. Tony Hu at the Methodist Hospital Research Institute.
The team's multifunctional nanosensor-modulator combines (RF) frequency modulation, sensing, and an analog memory effect to record the history of various chemical events, , even with a single graphene transistor. This is, however, not possible with conventional solid-state electronic devices.
Graphene Layer Adds All-Weather Efficiency To Solar Panels - Forbes - 5/31/2016 Finally however, researchers in the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at the Ocean University of China and the Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials at the Yunnan Normal University, also in China, have devised a solar panel that can even work the the torrential rains of United Kingdom. While they can still rightfully be called solar panels owing to the generation of electricity when sunlight energy is used to excite an electron, the rainwater falling on these panels is also able to generate some energy too, thanks to a layer of everyone’s favourite showoff material, graphene.
Graphene makes rubber more rubbery - ScienceDaily - 5/20/2016 In an article published in Carbon, Dr Aravind Vijayaraghavan and Dr Maria Iliut from Manchester have shown that adding a very small amount of graphene, the world's thinnest and strongest material, to rubber films can increase both their strength and the elasticity by up to 50%. Thin rubber films are ubiquitous in daily life, used in everything from gloves to condoms.
In their experiments, the scientists tested two kinds of rubbery materials -- natural rubber, composed of a material called polyisoprene, and a human-made rubber called polyurethane. To these, they added graphene of different kinds, amounts and size.
In most cases, it they observed that the resulting composite material could be stretched to a greater degree and with greater force before it broke. Indeed, adding just one tenth of one percent of graphene was all it took to make the rubber 50% stronger.
Graphene-based nanolubricants could grease automotive industry?s future - Phys.org - 5/20/2016 Recent research has shown that adding nanoparticles to liquids significantly enhances some of their properties. "Nanofluids" have been synthesised using carbon nanotubes and various metallic, oxide and ceramic nanoparticles. Adding nanoparticles to lubricants enhances their ability to conduct heat, lubricate and protect from wear-and-tear. These are important properties in the automotive industry as better lubricants result in reduced engine wear, lower noise, and better and longer engine performance.
So far, nanofluids employing carbon nanotubes have shown the best results. Now, a team of Malaysian scientists from the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and Taylor's University are examining the effects of adding graphene nanoflakes to various commercially available lubricants. Graphene is an incredibly strong one-atom-thick layer of carbon with excellent thermal and electrical conductivity, and properties for reducing wear and friction.
The team found that adding just 0.01% graphene nanoflakes compared to the total mass of lubricant improved its thermal conductivity by 17%, with almost no changes in viscosity. The enhancement of the lubricant's thermal properties generally varied according to the size, concentration and heating rates of the graphene nanoflakes used. The researchers believe that the enhanced thermal properties are due to graphene's large surface area, even distribution and Brownian motion – the erratic random movement of its molecules due to collisions with other molecules. Improved thermal conduction means the lubricant is better able to carry heat away from an engine.
Graphene e-paper is brighter and bendier - engadget - 5/01/2016 Who said that e-paper was old stuff? Certainly not China -- the country's Guangzhou OED Technologies has created what it says is the world's first graphene-based e-paper. The extremely strong yet light material promises very thin screens that are both brighter and more flexible. You could get e-readers that are easier to read on a sunny day, for instance, or activity trackers that can put up with more abuse. It should even be less expensive, as graphene's carbon is much easier to find than the exotic indium metal you see in conventional e-paper.
The main question is simply availability. The company expects to start production of graphene e-paper in a year, and it's not clear just who's lined up. You shouldn't count on Amazon making a graphene Kindle, unfortunately. If the technology takes off, though, it could give e-paper some relevance in an era when it's being crowded out by LCD- and OLED-based devices.
Graphene device puts fuel-efficient cars in pole position - Phys.org - 6/02/2016 A graphene-based electrical nano-device has been created which could substantially increase the energy efficiency of fossil fuel-powered cars.
The nano-device, known as a 'ballistic rectifier', is able to convert heat which would otherwise be wasted from the car exhaust and engine body into a useable electrical current.
Parts of car exhausts can reach temperatures of 600 degrees Celsius. The recovered energy can then be used to power additional automotive features such as air conditioning and power steering, or be stored in the car battery.
The nano-rectifier was built by a team at The University of Manchester led by Professor Aimin Song and Dr. Ernie Hill, with a team at Shandong University. The device utilises graphene's phenomenally high electron mobility, a property which determines how fast an electron can travel in a material and how fast electronic devices can operate.
The resulting device is the most sensitive room-temperature rectifier ever made. Conventional devices with similar conversion efficiencies require cryogenically low temperatures.
Nanoscrolls created from graphene's imperfect cousin - Space Daily - 4/22/2016 Stein and Amadei first used a common technique called the Hummers' method to separate graphite flakes into individual layers of graphene oxide. They then placed the graphene oxide flakes in solution and stimulated the flakes to curl into scrolls, using two similar approaches: a low-frequency tip-sonicator, and a high-frequency custom reactor.
The tip-sonicator is a probe made of piezoelectric material that shakes at a low, 20Hz frequency when voltage is applied. When placed in a solution, the tip-sonicator produces sound waves that stir up the surroundings, creating bubbles in the solution.
Similarly, the group's reactor contains a piezoelectric component that is connected to a circuit. As voltage is applied, the reactor shakes - at a higher, 390 Hz frequency compared with the tip-sonicator - creating bubbles in the solution within the reactor.
Stein and Amadei applied both techniques to solutions of graphene oxide flakes and observed similar effects: The bubbles that were created in solution eventually collapsed, releasing energy that caused the flakes to spontaneously curl into scrolls. The researchers found they could tune the dimensions of the scrolls by varying the treatment duration and the frequency of the ultrasonic waves. Higher frequencies and shorter treatments did not lead to significant damage of the graphene oxide flakes and produced larger scrolls, while low frequencies and longer treatment times tended to cleave flakes apart and create smaller scrolls.
Graphene sponge soaks up good vibrations - Chemistry World - 4/20/2016 Replicating the performance of the mechanoreceptors responsible for sensing vibrations has proved challenging, particularly when incorporating technology into softer, flexible materials. ‘Until now, an accelerometer has been introduced as a sensor element to detect vibrations,’ explains Wanjun Park from Hanyang University, one of the researchers involved in this study. ‘Unfortunately, extending this approach to artificial skin is limited because of the rigid nature of accelerometers.’
To solve this problem, Park’s team synthesised an elastic polyurethane sponge embedded with fine flakes of piezoresistive graphene, using a simple dip coating method. Adjusting the number of dipping steps, or the concentration of the graphene dispersion, modified the conductivity of the sponge.
The sensor responds to miniscule forces that deform the sponge and the network of graphene flakes within it. Altering the connectivity between these flakes gives a resistance change, which the team could measure. Ridges and grooves on the sponge, designed to mimic a human fingerprint, can then pick up vibrations when moved across a rough surface.
Scientists are developing graphene solar panels that generate energy when it rains - Science Alert - 4/08/2016 Key to the new process is graphene: a 'wonder' material we've heard plenty about before. Because raindrops are not made up of pure water, and contain various salts that split up into positive and negative ions, a team from the Ocean University of China in Qingdao thinks we can harness power via a simple chemical reaction. Specifically, they want to use graphene sheets to separate the positively charged ions in rain (including sodium, calcium, and ammonium) and in turn generate electricity.
Graphene Filter Could Make Wireless Data Transmission 10 Times as Fast - IEEE Spectrum - 4/08/2016 Tamagnone envisions the chip being used for protecting terahertz sources by preventing reflected waves from returning to their points of origin. And with the cost of graphene decreasing, Tamagnone believes that it can be a very competitive choice for terahertz devices.
Graphene-based remote controlled molecular switches - Science Daily - 4/07/2016 Imagine a world where you can tailor the properties of graphene to have the outcome you desire. By combining its unique properties with the precision of molecular chemistry, scientists have taken the first steps towards doing just that. In a new paper, scientists show how it is possible to create light-responsive graphene-based devices, paving the way for many applications including photo sensors and even optically controllable memories.
Graphene-based material more sensitive than human skin - Cosmos - 4/01/2016 A new graphene-based material could be made into "skin" for a robot or used to make prosthetic hands more sensitive than real ones.
The graphene-based cellular elastomer, or G-elastomer, was developed by researchers at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, who say other potential uses are to create soft, tactile robots to help care for elderly people or in the performance of remote surgical procedures.
"This graphene elastomer is a flexible, ultra-light material which can detect pressures and vibrations across a broad bandwidth of frequencies," says one its inventors, Ling Qiu.
"It far exceeds the response range of our skin, and it also has a very fast response time, much faster than conventional polymer elastomer."
Silicon and Graphene Combo Finally Achieve Lithium-Ion Battery Greatness - IEEE Spectrum - 3/31/2016 The KSU researchers claim that the electrode has a capacity of approximately 600 miliampere-hour per gram or 400 miliampere-hour per cubic centimeter of the electrode after 1020 cycles. The researchers expect that the power density (the maximum amount of power that can be supplied per unit mass) is expected to be more than three times that of today’s Li-ion batteries.
Graphene patch monitors blood glucose and auto-injects treatment - ExtremeTech - 3/29/2016 If you were sitting around worrying that graphene might not be able to live up to its potential in electrochemical bio-sensing (and that has to be at least half of you), then worry no more: All we have to do to make graphene practical for every-day use is mix it with gold! By employing just a tiny amount of the precious metal to offset some of graphene’s least helpful properties, it turns out that we might be able to fully exploit its best ones. A new study published in Nature Nanotechnology uses this hybrid to create a flexible skin patch to monitor blood glucose and, more importantly, automatically administer drugs as needed.
Layered graphene oxide hosts lithium metal anodes-Nanotechweb - 3/24/2016 Lithium is a promising anode candidate for future high-energy-density batteries thanks to its light weight and the fact that it has the highest theoretical capacity (of 3860 mAh/g) and the lowest electrochemical potential of all metals. However, it does suffer from several serious problems, one of which is that its volume drastically changes during battery recycling. Now, a team of researchers from Stanford University in the US has tackled this problem head-on by confining lithium anodes inside the interlayer gaps of “lithophilic” layered reduced graphene oxide. The new composite anode keeps up to around 3390 mAh/g of its capacitance, has a low overpotential of roughly 80 mV at 3 mA/cm2 and other good properties, such as a flat voltage profile in a carbonate electrolyte.
Graphene patch could help patients manage diabetes-C&EN - 3/24/2016 A wearable, graphene-based patch could one day maintain healthy blood glucose levels in people by measuring the sugar in sweat and then delivering the necessary dose of a diabetes drug through the skin (Nat. Nanotechnol. 2016, DOI:
Pumping up energy storage with metal oxides and graphene - Nanowerk - 3/22/2016 Material scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have found certain metal oxides increase capacity and improve cycling performance in lithium-ion batteries.
The team synthesized and compared the electrochemical performance of three graphene metal oxide nanocomposites and found that two of them greatly improved reversible lithium storage capacity.
The research appears on the cover of the March 21 edition of the Journal of Materials Chemistry A ("Solvent-directed sol-gel assembly of 3-dimensional graphene-tented metal oxides and strong synergistic disparities in lithium storage").
Graphene Filters Revolutionize Water Recycling-Stratfor - 3/18/2016 ...a new manufacturing technique may make it possible to produce graphene filters with the size and standardization needed for large-scale desalination. Australian and U.S. researchers have developed a process that uses a blade to spread a viscous graphene-oxide material into a thin sheet that can remove virtually anything from water, including chemicals, salts, viruses and bacteria. These graphene-oxide filters could become a formidable tool in combating water scarcity, though they may not be widely used for at least another five years. As water resources become increasingly strained in some of the biggest cities and most populated countries, improvements in purification technologies will be important for more effectively using the limited water the world has left.
Could superstar graphene solve the world’s water crisis? - Silicon Republic - 03/11/2016 A new "revolutionary" use of graphene to filter water could solve contaminated water issues throughout the world, according to a team of researchers from the US and Australia.
Using graphene oxide, the new filter allows water and other liquids to be filtered nine times faster than the current leading commercial filter. The key to making this filter was developing a viscous form of graphene oxide that could be spread very thinly with a blade.
Photoresponsive Supramolecular Networks Self-Assemble on Graphene - Photonics - 3/10/2016 Nature is unrivaled when it comes to the self-assembly of complex, high-performance molecular machinery for light absorption, exciton or charge separation and electron transfer. Molecular nanotechnologists have long dreamt of mimicking such extraordinary biomolecular architectures and rewiring them to produce inexpensive electricity.
Now researchers from the departments of physics and chemistry at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), from the Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, and the Université de Strasbourg, in France, have modified dye molecules in such a manner that allows them to serve as building blocks of self-assembling molecular networks.
The dye molecules self-assemble on the atomically flat surfaces of a graphene coated diamond substrate into the target architecture in a manner akin to proteins and DNA nanotechnology. The sole driving force stems from the engineered supramolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds. As expected, say the researchers, the molecular network produces a photocurrent when exposed to light.
Graphene used for brain electrode in Parkinson treatment - Electronics Weekly - 3/10/2016 Researchers from the University of Trieste in Italy and the University of Cambridge’s Graphene Centre say it is possible to use graphene to make electrodes that can be implanted in the brain, which could potentially be used to restore sensory functions for amputee or paralysed patients, or for individuals with motor disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.
"We are just at the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the potential of graphene and related materials in bio-applications and medicine," says Andrea Ferrari, director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre.
Graphene-Laced Bike Tires Are Both Stiffer and Softer - Popular Mechanics - 03/09/2016 By adding layers of graphene (a one-atom-thick layer of carbon) to bike tires, Vittoria has developed new tires, called G+ or Graphene Plus, that they claim are superior in pretty much every facet. They are lighter than ordinary tires. They are longer-lasting and more puncture resistant. They dissipate heat more efficiently. They are stiffer when riding upright for improved rolling resistance, but soften in turns for better traction thanks to the honeycomb pattern of the graphene.
Using graphene to fight bacteria - Eureka Alert - 3/02/2016 Scientists at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome are studying graphene oxide in the hopes of one day creating bacteria-killing catheters and medical devices. Coating surgical tools with this carbon-based compound could kill bacteria, reducing the need for antibiotics, decreasing the rates of post-operative infections and speeding recovery times.
Graphene Patterned After Moth Eyes Could Give Us 'Smart Wallpaper' - Gizmodo - 2/29/2016 Using a novel technique called “nano texturing,” scientists at the University of Surrey in England have successfully modified ultra-thin graphene sheets to create the most efficient light-absorbent material to date, which is capable of generating electricity from both captured light and waste heat. They described their work in a new paper in Science Advances...
...By doing so, they were able to boost the light absorption capability of graphene sheets from a mere 2 to 3 percent, to a whopping 95 percent.
Zap&Go's Graphene Supercapacitor Powers Portable Charger-IEEE Spectrum - 2/25/2016 Instead, the Zap&Go system is based on a supercapacitor so it can be completely charged from empty to full in less than five minutes. The device passes on that charge to your mobile device at about the same rate as a regular Li-ion battery recharger, but this is a limitation of the batteries in the mobile device.
Shells spark strong graphene fibre - Nature - 2/24/2016 A composite thread with a structure inspired by nacre — the iridescent material found inside many seashells — is the strongest graphene-based fibre ever made.
Such fibres are typically produced by spinning together nanometre-thick sheets of graphene oxide. But they often have poor tensile strength, probably owing to weak interactions between the nanosheets. To strengthen the threads, Qunfeng Cheng of Beihang University in Beijing and his colleagues added two more ingredients: calcium ions and a flexible carbon compound called PCDO. These help to bind the nanosheets together, mimicking the strong interaction…
Researchers use 3D printing to make ultrafast graphene supercapacitor-Phys.org - 2/22/2016
Scientists at UC Santa Cruz and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have reported the first example of ultrafast 3D-printed graphene supercapacitor electrodes that outperform comparable electrodes made via traditional methods. Their results open the door to novel, unconstrained designs of highly efficient energy storage systems for smartphones, wearables, implantable devices, electric cars and wireless sensors.
Using a 3D-printing process called direct-ink writing and a graphene-oxide composite ink, the team was able to print micro-architected electrodes and build supercapacitors with excellent performance characteristics. The results were published online January 20 in the journal Nano Letters and will be featured on the cover of the March issue of the journal.
"Supercapacitor devices using our 3D-printed graphene electrodes with thicknesses on the order of millimeters exhibit outstanding capacitance retention and power densities," said corresponding author Yat Li, associate professor of chemistry at UC Santa Cruz. "This performance greatly exceeds the performance of conventional devices with thick electrodes, and it equals or exceeds the performance of reported devices made with electrodes 10 to 100 times thinner."
New Graphene-Glass Combo Powers "Spontaneous" Solar Cell - CleanTechnica - 2/12/2016 So, what is it about soda-lime glass that does the trick? The main ingredient, soda (Na2CO3), is a sodium compound, and when you layer graphene onto the glass, the sodium interacts with it. Apparently the interaction naturally results in a doping effect that researchers have been struggling to accomplish, as described by the research team:
The sodium inside the soda-lime glass creates high electron density in the graphene, which is essential to many processes and has been challenging to achieve.
Graphene Cages Cover Silicon Anodes for High Capacity Batteries-IEEE Spectrum - 2/01/2016 One researcher who has been focused on developing a practical silicon-based anode is Yi Cui from both Stanford University and the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Now Cui and a team of researchers from both Stanford and SLAC have developed a new approach to using silicon in the anodes of Li-ion batteries—one that might not only be technologically possible, but also commercially viable.
In research explained in the journal Nature Energy, the researchers found a way to encase each particle of silicon with a cage of graphene that enables the silicon to expand and contract without cracking. In a full-cell electrochemical test, the graphene-infused silicon anodes retained 90 percent of their charge capacity after 100 charge-discharge cycles.
Graphene aids lens technology breakthrough-Swinburne - 1/29/2016 A flat optical lens just a billionth of a metre thick will let us see living creatures as small as a single bacterium better than ever before. The new lens, developed by researchers at Swinburne University of Technology, promises to revolutionize much of the technology around us.
Colmar and Directa Plus Launch World’s First Graphene-Enhanced Sportswear Collection-Sourcing Journal - 1/28/2016 ...But at this week’s ISPO Munich exhibition, Colmar unveiled a graphene-enhanced collection (comprising ready-to-wear ski jackets, ski suits, technical underwear and a polo shirt) that it claimed will improve the performance of professional athletes and sports enthusiasts alike.
Here’s how it works: Directa Plus said that graphene-based products ensure warmth produced by the human body is dispersed in warm climates and preserved and distributed evenly in cold climates. In addition, because fabrics treated with Graphene Plus are electrostatic and bacteriostatic, they are able to reduce the friction with air and water to enable top sporting performance.
"This is the first time that Graphene Plus has been used in sportswear and the first Graphene Plus textile product to reach the market, which represents a significant milestone in a sector that offers tremendous opportunity," Giulio Cesareo, chief executive officer of Directa Plus, stated. "We believe this is the beginning of a revolution in the world of sportswear and the textile industry as a whole."
Putting silicon 'sawdust' in a graphene cage boosts battery performance-Phys.org - 1/28/2016 Scientists have been trying for years to make a practical lithium-ion battery anode out of silicon, which could store 10 times more energy per charge than today's commercial anodes and make high-performance batteries a lot smaller and lighter. But two major problems have stood in the way: Silicon particles swell, crack and shatter during battery charging, and they react with the battery electrolyte to form a coating that saps their performance.
Now, a team from Stanford University and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has come up with a possible solution: Wrap each and every silicon anode particle in a custom-fit cage made of graphene, a pure form of carbon that is the thinnest and strongest material known and a great conductor of electricity.
In a report published Jan. 25 in Nature Energy, they describe a simple, three-step method for building microscopic graphene cages of just the right size: roomy enough to let the silicon particle expand as the battery charges, yet tight enough to hold all the pieces together when the particle falls apart, so it can continue to function at high capacity. The strong, flexible cages also block destructive chemical reactions with the electrolyte.
A pinch of graphene could keep airplane wings ice-free-Gizmag - 1/27/2016 Both airplane wings and helicopter rotor blades are subject to one problem – they can both ice up. Although de-icing solutions can be applied when aircraft are on the ground, that doesn't stop ice from eventually forming once they're in the air. That's why scientists at Texas' Rice University have developed a new graphene-based coating that continuously melts ice by conducting an electrical current.
Led by Prof. James Tour, the researchers combined an epoxy with what are known as graphene nanoribbons. These are made by "unzipping" carbon nanotubes along one side – carbon nanotubes being nanoscale tubes made of graphene. The resulting nanoribbons are basically flat rectangular sheets of graphene, which present more face-to-face surface area than they did when in nanotube form.
Although the ribbons make up only 5 percent of the epoxy/graphene composite, their electrical conductivity is sufficient to allow a current to pass through a coating of the material. Even using a relatively small voltage, that coating delivers enough electrothermal heat to melt ice.
Using graphene to filter water-Phys.org - 1/26/2016 Developing a new application for graphene oxide is a culmination of Mi's almost single-minded focus on how water-filtering membranes work—a quest that started over 15 years ago during her senior year of college at Tianjin University. During that year, she was exposed to membrane filtration systems for the first time while conducting lab research with a professor.
As a doctoral student at the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign, she capped off her student career with a dissertation on using membranes for arsenic removal. Then, after a post-doc at Yale (where she focused on forward osmosis) and taking on a faculty position at George Washington University, she arrived at the University of Maryland, where she first started her research on graphene oxide.
Mi—who taught a course at Berkeley last semester on emerging technology for water sustainability—was granted a patent on the membranes in 2015. And though companies have expressed interest in commercializing the technology, she says it needs to be tested at a larger scale first.
Still, Mi says she believes that the membrane would be very attractive to government and industry, especially in the midst of California's longstanding drought. That's because their ability to be more energy-efficient and less costly makes them potentially useful in seawater desalination—an approach that has been raised as a potential solution to increase the state's water supply, yet is considered today to be largely infeasible due to the high costs and energy intensive needs of desalination plants.
CaO makes the graphene hierarchy for high-power lithium-sulfur batteries-Phys.org - 1/26/2016 Structural hierarchy is the cornerstone of the biological world, as well as the most important lesson that we have learned from nature to develop ingenious hierarchical porous materials for various applications in energy conversion and storage. Recently, a research group from China, led by Prof. Qiang Zhang in Tsinghua University, has developed a novel kind of hierarchical porous graphene (HPG) via a versatile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on CaO templates for high-power lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. This work is published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials.
"Due to the urgent demand for sustainable energy systems and portable energy storage devices, the Li-S battery has been cited as the most promising alternative for next-generation energy storage devices, due to its high theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg-1, low cost, and eco-friendliness," said Prof. Zhang. "Despite these advantages, the practical application still suffers from a formidable challenge due to the intrinsic insulation of sulfur and lithium sulfides, the dissolution of polysulfides with a shuttle effect, and the huge volume change of cathode materials during operation."
...For the first time, Cheng proposed the hierarchical porous CaO particles as effective catalytic templates for the facile CVD growth of graphene. CaO is a very common and promising material with a low cost, easy purification, and promising cyclic utilization. Additionally, various hierarchical structures can be readily obtained for CaO, making it a versatile strategy to fabricate HPG materials with tunable structural hierarchy.
Based on this concept, they obtained a hierarchical porous structure of graphene with abundant microsized inplane vacancies, mesosized wrinkled pores, and macrosized strutted cavities. It can serve as a favorable scaffold for cathodes of Li-S batteries with enhanced utilization of sulfur, high discharge capacity and efficiency, superior stability, and excellent rate capability. The small mesopores facilitate the entrapment of sulfur and polysulfides; the micropores and defective graphene layers with a high SSA accommodate a high sulfur loading with intimate affinity; the interconnected large mesopores and macropores shorten the transport distance of ion and electrolyte...
Increasing oil's performance with crumpled graphene balls-Phys.org - 1/25/2016 For the average car, 15 percent of the fuel consumption is spent overcoming friction in the engine and transmission. When friction is high, gears have to work harder to move. This means the car burns more fuel and emits more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
"Every year, millions of tons of fuel are wasted because of friction," said Jiaxing Huang, associate professor of materials science and engineering at Northwestern University's McCormick School of Engineering. "It's a serious problem."
While oil helps reduce this friction, people have long searched for additives that enhance oil's performance. Huang and his collaborators discovered that crumpled graphene balls are an extremely promising lubricant additive. In a series of tests, oil modified with crumpled graphene balls outperformed some commercial lubricants by 15 percent, both in terms of reducing friction and the degree of wear on steel surfaces.
Graphene oxide electronics are hot off the press-Chemistry World - 1/22/2016 Luis Baptista-Pires and his colleagues from the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology have now transferred graphene oxide coated on a wax printed membrane to paper, an adhesive film and even a t-shirt by simply using pressure and water. As the wax membrane is hydrophobic, water absorbed by the sample is pushed towards the hydrophilic graphene oxide surface, allowing it to be easily transferred to another surface when placed under pressure.
The team also printed graphene oxide onto a plastic and, as the oxide conducts electricity, used it as a touch sensitive LED switch.
Revolutionary new graphene elastomer exceeds sensitivity of human skin-Phys.org - 1/14/2016 Graphene-based cellular elastomer, or G-elastomer, is highly sensitive to pressure and vibrations. Unlike other viscoelastic substances such as polyurethane foam or rubber, G-elastomer bounces back extremely quickly under pressure, despite its exceptionally soft nature. This unique, dynamic response has never been found in existing soft materials, and has excited and intrigued researchers Professor Dan Li and Dr Ling Qiu from the Monash Centre for Atomically Thin Materials (MCATM).
According to Dr Qiu, "This graphene elastomer is a flexible, ultra-light material which can detect pressures and vibrations across a broad bandwidth of frequencies. It far exceeds the response range of our skin, and it also has a very fast response time, much faster than conventional polymer elastomer."
"Although we often take it for granted, the pressure sensors in our skin allow us to do things like hold a cup without dropping it, crushing it, or spilling the contents. The sensitivity and response time of G-elastomer could allow a prosthetic hand or a robot to be even more dexterous than a human, while the flexibility could allow us to create next generation flexible electronic devices," he said.
Touch-Sensitive Graphene Skin Stretches and Snaps Back Into Place - Gizmodo - 1/14/2016 The newly developed graphene skin makes use of the material piezoresistive properties. You can run a current through piezoresistive materials and they’ll hold up just fine. Deform them, and their resistance to the current goes up. Let them move back into place and their resistance goes back to normal. By measuring the resistance through a piece of material, you can measure how much it has deformed, and thus determine how much pressure has been applied.
However, piezoresistive materials are not sensitive enough to vibration, in part because they don’t readily pull back to their original shape after being deformed. In contrast, the graphene skin springs back easily, and can sense a wide variety of frequencies. So depending on advances in robotics—namely soft robotics—the world could one day see a big huggable machine like Baymax from Big Hero 6. All thanks to graphene.
Head Graphene XT Prestige Pro-Tennis - 1/13/2016 When Head went all Graphene on its racquets, no line arguably saw more of a change than the Prestige. One of the all-time classic player’s frames, its trademark plush response didn’t seem quite as noticeable as the weight got pushed from the throat of the racquet toward the tip and tail. Its primary directive was still control, but with the potential for more power, minus some of the buttery feel.
The latest incarnation, the Graphene XT Prestige, continues this formula. Only in the case of the Prestige Pro it has resulted in an improved feeling frame. Our measurements found it to be slightly lighter than its predecessor, with a lower swingweight, yet it’s still exceptionally solid at impact. And because its more maneuverable it’s easier (not easy) to generate extra pop. In fact, while lighter than its sibling, the Graphene XT Prestige MP, the Pro plays with more heft and punch. Its playing characteristics should open up the Prestige to an even wider audience.
Edison Power and Sunvault Energy Create Cost Effective Graphene Reinforced Plastic for Multi-Purpose Uses - Equities - 1/11/2016 The Company has created a Graphene Reinforced Plastic that is cost effective and with potential uses that could change the landscape as far as plastics utilization in products is concerned. From automobile parts to enhancing fragile smart phones, this revolutionary material can give products steel like endurance but with the weight, economics and simplicity of plastic. The material has many consumer advantages but in addition there are some protective attributes that are truly impressive.
In two video presentations the Company first demonstrated the ability of the graphene reinforced plastic to stop a collection of 22 caliber and 45 caliber bullets before demonstrating in the second video presentation the ability to stop the most commonly faced weapon of aggression in the military: the AK47.
Graphene could be used to clean up nuclear waste, say scientists-Independent - 12/31/2015 This is the first time that graphene – which consists of a crystal lattice of carbon arranged in layers just one atom thick – has been shown to act as a subatomic filter.
The findings could revolutionise the production of the heavy water composed of a rare form of hydrogen called deuterium, which is expensive to manufacture and purify with existing technology.
Graphene could also be used to clean up nuclear waste contaminated with radioactive tritium, another hydrogen isotope that can be separated by the graphene filter, the scientists said. “Essentially, graphene is the finest sieve known. It can sieve particles smaller than an atom. That is not only new but unexpected,” said Marcelo Lozada-Hidalgo of Manchester University, the first author of the study published in the journal Science.
Beating graphene to push supercapacitors closer to batteries-arsTechnica - 12/30/2015 Adding nitrogen to carbon materials boosts capacitance above that of graphene.
Graphene quantum dots make efficient solar cells-Nature Middle East - 12/29/2015 The researchers from Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Hong Kong added various concentrations of graphene quantum dots to solutions of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). They then deposited the mixed solutions on silicon substrate to create the hybrid cells.
The solar cells showed enhanced short-circuit current density and fill factor, measures of quality for solar cells.
An active region in the solar cells, which contains graphene quantum dots that convert ultraviolet light to visible light, contributed to a power conversion efficiency of 13.22% — the highest power conversion efficiency so far achieved.
Graphene based epoxy resins for the aerospace industry - Engineering Materials - 12/27/2015 CPI spin out company Primary Dispersions Limited has announced promising results from a UK collaboration that aims to commercialise specialist graphene based epoxy resins for the aerospace industry.
The InnovateUK project titled ‘NanoSynth’ claims to have shown significant improvements in epoxy resin mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Although still at a low technology readiness level, the programme has developed a method for producing graphene in-situ within the resin. Once concluded the project has the potential to introduce graphene based epoxy resins into aerospace components leading to parts that are not only stronger and of reduced weight but also possess improved electrical and thermal properties.
Vittoria To Start a Cycling Revolution With Graphene - BIKE europe - 12/22/2015 Vittoria’s new Corsa Speed (Tubeless ready) with graphene has been measured at 40% less rolling resistance compared to the same product without graphene. According to Vittoria, elaborate independent testing clearly proves it is the fastest tyre in the world.
"The new Corsa has 19% less rolling resistance compared to the same product without graphene. In combination with the most flexible Aramid-enhanced cotton casing ever developed, this product is the best performance tyre in the world overall."
Physicists develop graphene material for a more efficient energy storage Nanowerk - 12/17/2015 Predictions of physicists of the University of Luxembourg recently lead to the discovery of a material with special electric properties which engages the interest of plastics producing industry. Three years ago, physicists from Luxembourg had theoretically predicted the unusual characteristics of a particular composite material. These calculations could now be confirmed by experiment in cooperation with the "Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal" in Bordeaux, France, and resulted in the discovery of a so-called high-k-material, which might enable the production of better energy storage devices – the basis for smaller, faster and more efficient electronics.
The earlier calculations made by the team around Tanja Schilling, professor of physics at the University of Luxembourg, were at first rather bad news for the field of materials research: they indicated that certain compound materials made of polymers and flaky graphene, unlike those made of polymers and carbon nanotubes, did not increase the conductivity of the material to the degree that was generally expected until then. It was a surprising conclusion at the time which questioned the use of graphene in order to increase conductivity.
This prediction, however, now lead to a highly promising discovery: the effect that put the conductivity of the plastics-graphene-compound into question, causes it to have remarkable dielectric properties. This means that one can generate a strong electric field inside of it – the fundamental property for the production of efficient capacitors. These are tiny components that can store energy statically and occur in almost all electronic devices, where they act as voltage regulators or information storage, among other things. Computers, for example, contain billions of those.
Graphene proves a perfect fit for wearable devices-Phys.org - 12/17/2015 Cheap, flexible, wireless graphene communication devices such as mobile phones and healthcare monitors can be directly printed into clothing and even skin, University of Manchester academics have demonstrated.
In a breakthrough paper in Scientific Reports, the researchers show how graphene could be crucial to wearable electronic applications because it is highly-conductive and ultra-flexible.
The research could pave the way for smart, battery-free healthcare and fitness monitoring, phones, internet-ready devices and chargers to be incorporated into clothing and 'smart skin' applications – printed graphene sensors integrated with other 2D materials stuck onto a patient's skin to monitor temperature, strain and moisture levels.
Teams work on aircraft parts made from graphene-The Engineer - 12/09/2015 In a new partnership between Manchester University and the Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM) announced this week, researchers will explore the use of graphene composites in aircraft.
Researchers at BIAM and Manchester University’s National Graphene Institute will exchange expertise and cooperate on projects to understand and test the structure of graphene reinforced aluminium matrix nanocomposites.
...Adding graphene to aluminium alloys could considerably increase their strength, while retaining their flexibility, according to Prof Robert Young at Manchester University, who is leading the collaboration.
...In the future, the two parties plan to expand the collaboration on graphene materials beyond reinforced aluminium matrix composites. The researchers also hope to collaborate on the development of graphene energy storage, environmental purification, and information materials.
Researchers at NGI are also aiming to improve the plastic that holds together the carbon fibre in aircraft wings. Adding graphene to the material should help stop water entering the wings, which can reduce their strength.
Graphene 3D Lab Files Patent for Graphene 3D Printed LED Light Source and Multi-Function 3D Printer-3D Print - 12/04/2015 Graphene 3D Lab has announced that they have filed a provisional patent application for a process using graphene materials to 3D print an organic LED light using their newly developed multi-functional 3D printer. The patent application includes 3D printer technology that uses multiple material deposition techniques, robotic manipulation, and laser as well as UV curing capabilities. The application is specific to the process of using their new printer to fabricate a working LED light source that is entirely functional right off of the printing bed with no further augmentation required. The printed organic LED device is a graphene coated transparent window that will automatically conduct electricity.
Graphene shows promise for super strong dental fillings-GizMag - 12/03/2015 A team of researchers from four institutions located in Romania and St. Kitts have worked together to determine whether graphene could be used to create more durable dental materials. They worked to test how toxic different forms of the material were to teeth, with promising results.
Scientists see the light on microsupercapacitors: Laser-induced graphene makes simple, powerful energy storage possible-Phys.org - 12/03/2015 Rice University researchers who pioneered the development of laser-induced graphene have configured their discovery into flexible, solid-state microsupercapacitors that rival the best available for energy storage and delivery.
The devices developed in the lab of Rice chemist James Tour are geared toward electronics and apparel. They are the subject of a new paper in the journal Advanced Materials.
Microsupercapacitors are not batteries, but inch closer to them as the technology improves. Traditional capacitors store energy and release it quickly (as in a camera flash), unlike common lithium-ion batteries that take a long time to charge and release their energy as needed.
Rice's microsupercapacitors charge 50 times faster than batteries, discharge more slowly than traditional capacitors and match commercial supercapacitors for both the amount of energy stored and power delivered.
The devices are manufactured by burning electrode patterns with a commercial laser into plastic sheets in room-temperature air, eliminating the complex fabrication conditions that have limited the widespread application of microsupercapacitors. The researchers see a path toward cost-effective, roll-to-roll manufacturing.
'White graphene’ could enable ultra-thin devices and fuel cells - New Electronics - 12/02/2015 Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have created a virtually perfect single layer of ‘white graphene’, which they say could usher in a new era of electronics and even quantum devices.
The material, technically known as hexagonal boron nitride, is said to feature better transparency than graphene, is chemically inert, and atomically smooth. It also features high mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. Unlike graphene, however, it is an insulator instead of a conductor of electricity, making it useful as a substrate and the foundation for the electronics in mobile phones, laptops, tablets and many other devices.
"Imagine batteries, capacitors, solar cells, video screens and fuel cells as thin as a piece of paper," said ORNL postdoctoral associate Yijing Stehle. She and her colleagues are also working on a graphene hexagonal boron 2D capacitor and fuel cell prototype that is not only ‘super thin’ but also transparent.
Graphene-Coated Wearable 'E-Textile' Can Alert Wearer To Presence Of Dangerous Gases-Forbes - 11/30/2015 Scientists at the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute in Konkuk University, Republic of Korea, have created a gas sensor that you can simply embroider onto any item of clothing. On exposure to high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in the air, the electrical properties of this electronic textile, or e-textile, change, causing a light emitting diode to shine, alerting the wearer to the dangerously high levels of this dangerous gas in the air they are breathing in.
Graphene Foam flexes with product and fits into any space-ThomasNet.com - 11/30/2015 NEW YORK, - Graphene 3D Lab Inc. (TSXV: GGG) ("Graphene 3D" or the "Company") is pleased to announce the release of a new commercial product 'Graphene Flex Foam', a Multilayer Freestanding Flexible Graphene Foam. This material is a combination of highly conductive three-dimensional Chemical Vapor Disposition ("CVD") ultra-light graphene foam and conductive elastomer composite.
"We have the ability to manufacture Graphene Flex Foam in basically any shape or size, but it is the flexibility of the product which we believe will capture the attention of innovative manufacturers who will want to evaluate the potential of commercializing this material into their products." stated Elena Polyakova, Co-CEO of Graphene 3D. "Any company interested in a freestanding, stable, ultralight, highly conductive material that can flex with their product and fit into any space, will be interested in this innovation."
This revolutionary product preserves all the remarkable properties of graphene foam such as superior electrical, with an added remarkable flexibility and ease of handling in an extremely lightweight and highly porous architecture.
"Graphene Flex Foam is an excellent substrate candidate in the manufacture of electrodes of lithium-ion batteries." said Daniel Stolyarov, Co-CEO of Graphene 3D. "Wearable electronics is an obvious application as the electronics, sensors and conductive properties will all need to be flexible with the wearable material. "We also believe that this innovative product has a bright future for the next generation of flexible batteries and supercapacitors. Graphene Flex Foam offers energy storage as well as catalyst support in numerous organic synthesis reactions, gas sensors, flexible and ultrasonic acoustic device fabrication."
The product will be available through Graphene Supermarket®, an e-commerce site operated by Graphene Laboratories. Graphene 3D is currently acquiring Graphene Laboratories as a wholly-owned subsidiary (see new release dated August 24, 2015).
Graphene: Terahertz modulator - Nature Photonics - 11/27/2015 An integrated device that can strongly modulate the intensity of terahertz (THz) waves could prove useful for various applications of terahertz photonics, including high-bit-rate free-space communications, imaging and sensing. Now, a graphene-based device with 100% modulation depth and a response speed of 110 MHz has been successfully...
Graphene microphone outperforms traditional nickel and offers ultrasonic reach-Phys.org - 11/26/2015 Scientists have developed a graphene based microphone nearly 32 times more sensitive than microphones of standard nickel-based construction.
The researchers, based at the University of Belgrade, Serbia, created a vibrating membrane - the part of a condenser microphone which converts the sound to a current - from graphene, and were able to show up to 15 dB higher sensitivity compared to a commercial microphone, at frequencies up to 11 kHz.
The results are published today, 27th November 2015, in the journal 2D Materials.
"We wanted to show that graphene, although a relatively new material, has potential for real world applications" explains Marko Spasenovic, an author of the paper. VGiven its light weight, high mechanical strength and flexibility, graphene just begs to be used as an acoustic membrane material."
The graphene membrane, approximately 60 layers thick, was grown on a nickel foil using chemical vapour deposition, to ensure consistent quality across all the samples.
During membrane production, the nickel foil was etched away and the graphene membrane placed in the same housing as a commercial microphone for comparison. This showed a 15 dB higher sensitivity than the commercial microphone.
The researchers also simulated a 300-layer thick graphene membrane, which shows potential for performance far into the ultrasonic part of the spectrum.
Graphene Flex Foam: Graphene 3D Lab Introduces New Lightweight, Flexible Graphene Material-3D Print - 11/23/2015 Today, Graphene 3D Lab has announced Graphene Flex Foam, a new commercial product that will be available through Graphene Laboratories’ e-commerce site, Graphene Supermarket.
Described as a Multilayer Freestanding Flexible Graphene Foam, the all-new Graphene Flex Foam brings together a conductive elastomer composite with ultra-light graphene foam. The foam, a highly conductive three-dimensional chemical vapor disposition (CVD), together with the composite, brings together the best of several worlds of graphene usage. As a flexible foam, the material is both lightweight and reconfigurable, adding to ease of use and handling, with a porous structure.
"We have the ability to manufacture Graphene Flex Foam in basically any shape or size," explained Graphene 3D Lab co-CEO Elena Polyakova, "but it is the flexibility of the product which we believe will capture the attention of innovative manufacturers who will want to evaluate the potential of commercializing this material into their products. Any company interested in a freestanding, stable, ultralight, highly conductive material that can flex with their product and fit into any space, will be interested in this innovation."
Graphene and metal nitrides improve the performance and stability of energy storage devices-Phys.org - 11/18/2015 Hui Huang from A*STAR's Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology and his colleagues from Nanyang Technological University and Jinan University, China, have fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors which incorporate metal nitride electrodes with stacked sheets of graphene.
To get the maximum benefit from the graphene surface, the team used a precise method for creating thin-films, a process known as atomic layer deposition, to grow two different materials on vertically aligned graphene nanosheets: titanium nitride for their supercapacitor's cathode and iron nitride for the anode. The cathode and anode were then heated to 800 and 600 degrees Celsius respectively, and allowed to slowly cool. The two electrodes were then separated in the asymmetric supercapacitor by a solid-state electrolyte, which prevented the oxidization of the metal nitrides.
The researchers tested their supercapacitor devices and showed they could cycle 20,000 times and exhibited both high capacitance and high power density. "These improvements are due to the ultra-high surface area of the vertically aligned graphene substrate and the atomic layer deposition method that enables full use of it," says Huang. "In future research, we want to enlarge the working-voltage of the device to increase energy density further still," says Huang.
Researchers design and patent graphene biosensors-Nanotechnology Now - 11/16/2015 The Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology is patenting biosensor chips based on graphene, graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes that will improve the analysis of biochemical reactions and accelerate the development of novel...
Molybdenum Dilsufide Outperforms Graphene in Water Desalination-IEEE Spectrum - 11/13/2015 Scientists have been looking to graphene in the search for ways of easing the energy demands of water desalination. Here the material acts a porous membrane that allows water through but blocks the flow of salt ions—a pressure-driven process called reverse osmosis. Researchers at the University of Illinois recently took a look at that material’s two-dimensional cousin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in that role and believe that it may remove salt much better.
In research published in the journal Nature Communications, the Illinois scientists modeled various thin-film membrane materials and found that MoS2 was the most efficient, filtering up to 70 percent more water than graphene membranes.
Automotive grade graphene: the clock is ticking-Automotive World - 11/12/2015 One of the most immediately likely applications for graphene-based products in automotive applications is in composite materials. Professor Ahmed Elmarakbi is a Professor of Automotive Engineering at the University of Sunderland in the UK, Founding Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Automotive Composites, and a Member of the EU Graphene Flagship. He told Megatrends that graphene has tremendous potential for the automotive industry, where it could be used to enhance the composite materials in cars.
Thanks to the anticipated future demand for lightweight vehicles, the automotive industry is expected to be the highest user of advanced composite materials by volume, said Elmarakbi. "Nowadays, several advanced materials are widely used in the automotive industry, but vehicle safety is usually compromised by lightweighting. Due to the trade-off between light vehicles and safety standards, new directions need to be adopted to overcome safety issues. Several attempts have been made to strengthen vehicle structures to enhance crashworthiness, but safety issues remain the main obstacle to producing lighter and greener cars."
Research has revealed that dispersing a small amount of graphene in polymers can significantly improve many properties of the resulting composites, such as tensile strength and elastic modulus, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal stability, gas barrier, and flame retardancy. Based on these multifunctional properties, graphene/polymer composites are promising as both structural and functional composites, with integration of functionalities within the automotive sector.
Lighter, tougher, faster: how the graphene revolution could transform cycling-BikeRadar - 11/12/2015 Vittoria started out putting graphene in carbon rims, where it claims, the material's unique qualities are put to good use. First of all, graphene's strength is 200 times that of steel, yet it has half the density of aluminium – obviously strong starting points for making something both stronger and lighter.
Graphene Key to High-Density, Energy-Efficient Memory Chips, Stanford Engineers Say-Power Electronics - 11/11/2015 In three recent experiments, Stanford engineers demonstrated post-silicon materials and technologies that store more data per square inch and use a fraction of the energy of today’s memory chips.
The unifying thread in all three experiments is graphene, an extraordinary material isolated a decade ago but which had, until now, relatively few practical applications in electronics.
A purified relative of pencil lead, graphene is formed when carbon atoms link together into sheets just one atom thick. Atom-thin graphene is stronger than steel, as conductive as copper, and has thermal properties useful in nanoscale electronics.
"Graphene is the star of this research," says Eric Pop, associate professor of electrical engineering and a contributor to two of the three memory projects. "With these new storage technologies, it would be conceivable to design a smartphone that could store 10 times as much data, using less battery power, than the memory we use today."
Professor H.-S. Philip Wong and Pop led an international group of collaborators who describe three graphene-centric memory technologies in separate articles in Nature Communications, Nano Letters and Applied Physics Letters.
'Invisible' Graphene Layer Protects Nanowires from Radiation Damage-Photonics - 11/10/2015 Wrapping silver nanowires in a one-atom-thick layer of graphene protects the structures from radiation damage that has historically prevented their use on a commercial scale.
"The damage occurs in medical imaging, in space applications and just from long-term exposure to sunlight," said Suprem Das, a former Purdue University doctoral student who is now a postdoctoral researcher at Iowa State University and The Ames Laboratory, who helped lead the study.
Silver nanowires are flexible and transparent, yet electrically conductive, and could replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which is relatively expensive due to the limited availability of indium. ITO is also inflexible and degrades over time, becoming brittle and hindering performance.
After conformally wrapping single-layer graphene (SLG) on top of a silver nanowire network, the researchers irradiated the network via a UV laser beam with nanosecond pulse width and a range of intensities. Even under 2.5-MW/cm2 intensity — which vaporized the unwrapped wires — the SLG layer protected the silver nanowires. Unwrapped wires were damaged with an energy intensity as low as 0.8 MW/cm2.
Graphene can create super-powerful night vision lenses that are just one atom thick-ScienceAlert - 11/10/2015 The researchers' paper has now been published in the American Chemical Society (ACS) journal Nano Letters.
"Testing showed [the new sensor] could be used to detect a person's heat signature at room temperature without cryogenic cooling," explains the ACS. "In the future, advances could make the device even more versatile."
And that versatility will be very important as the technology is developed further: you might immediately think of government spies or soldiers sneaking around with night vision equipment, but the same infrared technology can be very useful for everything from disaster relief efforts to checking under layers of paint.
Ultrasensitive sensors made from boron-doped graphene-Space Daily - 11/09/2015 Ultrasensitive gas sensors based on the infusion of boron atoms into graphene - a tightly bound matrix of carbon atoms - may soon be possible, according to an international team of researchers from six countries.
Graphene is known for its remarkable strength and ability to transport electrons at high speed, but it is also a highly sensitive gas sensor. With the addition of boron atoms, the boron graphene sensors were able to detect noxious gas molecules at extremely low concentrations, parts per billion in the case of nitrogen oxides and parts per million for ammonia, the two gases tested to date.
This translates to a 27 times greater sensitivity to nitrogen oxides and 10,000 times greater sensitivity to ammonia compared to pristine graphene. The researchers believe these results, reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, will open a path to high-performance sensors that can detect trace amounts of many other molecules.
Watch this graphene paper slither around like it's alive-engadget - 11/09/2015 Researchers from China have taken shape-memory materials to a creepy new level with a self-folding paper that can propel itself by "walking." Sorcery? Not quite. It's actually made from everybody's favorite wonder-material, graphene, and heated by an infrared laser that causes active regions to contract, then expand when it shuts off. By placing the regions in strategic locations, the team can make the paper move in any direction. It isn't going to put a scare into Sarah Connor just yet, but the team thinks it could one day be used to create contracting "muscles" that do power murderous 'bots. In the near term, the material could lead to low-cost temperature and humidity sensors.
Graphene moves from the lab to the factory floor-Nanowerk - 11/06/2015 A major showcase of companies developing new technologies from graphene and other two-dimensional materials took place this week at the Cambridge Graphene Centre...
Some of the examples of the products and prototypes on display included flexible displays, printed electronics, and graphene-based heaters, all of which have potential for consumer applications. Other examples included concrete and road surfacing incorporating graphene, which would mean lighter and stronger infrastructure, and roads that have to be resurfaced far less often, greatly lowering the costs to local governments.
Using hydrogen-treated graphene nanofoam to enhance lithium ion batteries -Nanowerk - 11/05/2015 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists have found that lithium ion batteries operate longer and faster when their electrodes are treated with hydrogen.
Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are a class of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
The growing demand for energy storage emphasizes the urgent need for higher-performance batteries. Several key characteristics of lithium ion battery performance -- capacity, voltage and energy density -- are ultimately determined by the binding between lithium ions and the electrode material. Subtle changes in the structure, chemistry and shape of an electrode can significantly affect how strongly lithium ions bond to it.
Through experiments and calculations, the Livermore team discovered that hydrogen-treated graphene nanofoam electrodes in the LIBs show higher capacity and faster transport.
"These findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes," said Morris Wang, an LLNL materials scientist and co-author of a paper (link is external) appearing in Nov. 5 edition of Nature Scientific Reports ("Universal roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: high rate capacity and atomistic origins").
New graphene-inspired night-vision tech is ‘beyond Predator’-Siliconrepublic - 11/05/2015 With the help of the wonder-material graphene, a team of researchers says that night-vision technology they are developing could greatly improve upon current models, especially those seen in the film ‘Predator’.
Lithium air battery makes breakthrough with graphene electrode-AutoBlog - 11/04/2015 We've watched lithium-based battery technology steadily improve over recent years, but if electrification is to really take over the transportation landscape, then a true breakthrough in energy storage would certainly help. Now, researchers from University of Cambridge are bringing that electric future into finer focus with the announcement of advancements they've made using 'fluffy' graphene electrodes with a unique cell chemistry.
With potentially ten-times more energy-holding capacity of today's power packs – in the same realm of gasoline – lithium-air is the Holy Grail of batteries. While challenges still remain, scientists have now developed a working demonstrator that achieves over 90-percent efficiency and has, so far, shown the ability to be cycled 2,000 times.
New Method Of Graphene Nanoribbon Production Shows Promise For Energy Efficient Electronics-Forbes - 11/03/2015 Graphene has long been touted as the answer to all of the world’s problems, with particular emphasis on more efficient electronics. While it shows great promise in this area, creating this two-dimensional material in the correct dimensions for such applications is proving to be a real challenge. Physical cutting of graphite blocks using fine diamond blades has been possible, but the isolation of individual layers of graphene in long, wide sections known as nanoribbons requires further isolation.
Graphene can be manufactured in layers using surface-assisted thin film synthesis methods that result from the reaction of two pre-cursor chemicals however this can currently only be achieved on metal substrates. In electronics, the materials that require the use of graphene nanoribbons are semiconductor materials such as geranium. In order for the graphene nanoribbons to replace the silicon that is currently used, it must be very smooth, with specific width, and smooth edges. This seemed impossible to achieve until recently.
Engineers at the University of Wisconsin – Madison have found a way to deposit perfectly proportioned graphene nanotubes directly onto a semiconductor wafer of germanium. They achieved this through a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, which is similar in some ways to surface assisted synthesis in that precursor chemicals react to produce a thin film, however the reactants are introduced to the reaction chamber in a gaseous state. In this particular method of chemical vapour deposition however, only one reactant is necessary – methane. When methane is introduced to the reaction chamber, under the correct temperature and pressure the methane sticks to the surface of the germanium wafer. Here it decomposes into other organic molecules, which further react with one another to produce a layer of graphene.
Desalination gets a graphene boost; MIT Professor Jeffrey Grossman Jeffrey Grossman applies new materials research to making desalination cheaper and more efficient.-MIT News - 11/02/2015 At the Grossman Group, which explores the development of new materials to address clean energy and water problems, a possible solution may be at hand. Grossman’s lab has demonstrated strong results showing that new filters made from graphene could greatly improve the energy efficiency of desalination plants while potentially reducing other costs as well.
Graphene, which results from slicing off an atom-thick layer of graphite, is increasingly emerging as something of a wonder material. The Grossman Group, for example, is also looking into using it as a cheaper alternative to silicon for making solar cells.
Graphene-based Magnetoresistance Sensor 200 Times as Sensitive as Silicon-IEEE Spectrum - 10/30/2015 Most of the sensor chips that turn home appliances such as refrigerators and washing machines into smart devices do so by detecting changes in electrical resistance brought on by the presence of magnetic field—also known as magnetoresistance (MR). These sensor chips, sometimes referred to as MR sensors, have traditionally been fabricated from silicon.
Now researchers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have produced these MR sensor chips out of graphene and boron nitride. Their version is 200 times as sensitive to electrical resistance as its silicon counterpart.
In research published last month in the journal Nature Communications, the NUS researchers used boron nitride as a substrate for graphene sheets; the resulting chip forms an interface that allows electrons to pass through the material very quickly.
"These electrons can thus respond to magnetic fields with greater sensitivity," said Associate Professor Yang Hyunsoo in a local report on the research.
The chip possesses high sensitivity to both high and low intensity magnetic fields, and neither its tunability nor its resistance changes substantially in varying temperatures.
Graphene detector monitors all forms of light-The Engineer - 10/30/2015 A team of researchers from Germany and the US have developed a graphene-based light detector that is able to monitor the entire spectral range from visible light, to infrared radiation and right through to terahertz radiation.
Jointly developed by scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and the University of Maryland the detector, claimed to be the first of its kind, could be used to improve the accuracy of so called pump probe experiments that use lasers to precisely monitor dynamic processes like chemical reactions.
Ultra-efficient graphene battery has energy density of oil-Engineering & Technology - 10/30/2015
A lithium-oxygen battery with a high energy density and the capability to be recharged more than 2,000 times has been made possible with the use of a graphene electrode.
Cambridge researchers have demonstrated a prototype device that is over 90 per cent efficient and could have significant implications for electric vehicles, renewable energy and consumer technology.
The theoretical energy density of lithium-oxygen batteries is up to 10 times greater than that found in current lithium-ion cells. This is equivalent to gasoline and would enable an electric car with a battery one-fifth the cost and one-fifth the weight of those currently on the market to travel the 650 kilometres between London and Edinburgh on a single charge.
Lighter, stronger, thinner: could graphene be cycling’s next game changer?-Cycling Weekly - 10/30/2015 Lighter bike frames and wheels without any compromise in strength and durability; safer carbon rim brake systems and composite, rather than alloy, disc rotors; highly durable tyres that respond to the demands of your ride; improved and lighter electronic shifting; and cycling apparel that uses "smart technology" and offers extra protection. Graphene’s impact on cycling could be huge.
Super accurate stopwatch made from graphene-Digital Journal - 10/29/2015 In a new application of the "super material" graphene, researchers have used ultra-thin flakes of graphene to construct a very fast and very accurate stopwatch.
The basis of the new stopwatch is an advanced optical detector, with graphene at the core. The sensor reacts quickly to incident light across most wavelengths (from infrared radiation to terahertz radiation).
The basis of the detector is described as straightforward and not very remarkable to look at: a tiny flake of graphene located on silicon carbide, together with an antenna. This basis structure hides the science behind the invention.
The science, according to a research note, is based on a new property of graphene. Graphene is a carbon-based material, that is very thin (just one atom thick), very light, and very strong. The material also makes for an effcient semiconductor. With the new development, the research team found that graphene can detect light across a wide range of photon energies and convert these into electric signals.
Based on this, the graphene flake together with the antenna assembly absorbs light and transfers the energy from the absorbed photons to the electrons within the graphene. The electrons raise the level of electrical resistance in the detector which produces pulsating electric signals.
Racquet Preview: Head Graphene XT Radical-Tennis - 10/23/2015 For many longtime users and fans of the Head Radical, the Graphene iteration was a noticeable departure from the frame’s heritage. The softer, more forgiving feel of previous Radicals was replaced by a firmer, crisper, livelier response. The prime reason was the addition of Graphene—an incredibly light and strong material—in the shaft of the racquet, which allows more weight to be pushed to the head and handle of the frame. The result was a trimmer, quicker model that had the swingweight and subsequent power of a heavier model.
Now the Radical is getting the Graphene XT treatment. The next generation of the technology is even stronger—up to 30%—allowing for even more weight distribution to towards the poles of the frame. With players preferred contact point toward the tip of the frame, the design is intended to put the weight where players need it most. Internal testing done by Head has shown up to 10% better energy transfer when compared to previous models.
Cobalt atoms on graphene a powerful combo-Phys.org - 10/21/2015 Graphene doped with nitrogen and augmented with cobalt atoms has proven to be an effective, durable catalyst for the production of hydrogen from water, according to scientists at Rice University.
The Rice lab of chemist James Tour and colleagues at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Texas at San Antonio and the University of Houston have reported the development of a robust, solid-state catalyst that shows promise to replace expensive platinum for hydrogen generation.
Catalysts can split water into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen atoms, a process required for fuel cells. The latest discovery, detailed in Nature Communications, is a significant step toward lower-cost catalysts for energy production, according to the researchers.
"What's unique about this paper is that we show not the use of metal particles, not the use of metal nanoparticles, but the use of atoms," Tour said. "The particles doing this chemistry are as small as you can possibly get."
Graphene structures applied to produce fireproof nanocoatings-MEHR News Agency - 10/19/2015 Iranian researchers have applied graphene structures to design nanocoatings with both anticorrosive and fireproof properties to coat steel structures, INIC reports.
According to Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC), hybrid nanoparticles based on modified graphite nanoplates have been used in the production of the coating.
Surfing water molecules on graphene could hold the key to fast and controllable water transport-Nanowerk News - 10/19/2015 Scientists at University College London (UCL) have identified a new and potentially faster way of moving molecules across the surfaces of certain materials.
The team carried out sophisticated computer simulations of tiny droplets of water as they interact with graphene surfaces. These simulations reveal that the molecules can "surf" across the surface whilst being carried by the moving ripples of graphene.
The study, published in Nature Materials ("Fast diffusion of water nanodroplets on graphene"), demonstrates that because the molecules were swept along by the movement of strong ripples in the carbon fabric of graphene, they were able to move at an exceedingly fast rate, at least ten times faster than previously observed.
Researchers discover graphene spirals could challenge macro solenoids-Phys.org - 10/19/2015 In the drive to miniaturize electronics, solenoids have become way too big, say Rice University scientists who discovered the essential component can be scaled down to nano-size with macro-scale performance.
The secret is in a spiral form of atom-thin graphene that, remarkably, can be found in nature, according to Rice theoretical physicist Boris Yakobson and his colleagues.
"Usually, we determine the characteristics for materials we think might be possible to make, but this time we're looking at a configuration that already exists," Yakobson said. "These spirals, or screw dislocations, form naturally in graphite during its growth, even in common coal."
The researchers determined that when a voltage is applied, current will flow around the helical path and produce a magnetic field, as it does in macro inductor-solenoids. The discovery is detailed in a new paper in the American Chemical Society journal Nano Letters.
New graphene-based inks for high-speed manufacturing of printed electronics-Phys.org - 10/19/2015 A low-cost, high-speed method for printing graphene inks using a conventional roll-to-roll printing process, like that used to print newspapers and crisp packets, could open up a wide range of practical applications, including inexpensive printed electronics, intelligent packaging and disposable sensors.
Developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge in collaboration with Cambridge-based technology company Novalia, the method allows graphene and other electrically conducting materials to be added to conventional water-based inks and printed using typical commercial equipment, the first time that graphene has been used for printing on a large-scale commercial printing press at high speed.
Graphene beats polymer coatings in preventing microbially induced corrosion-Nanowerk - 10/13/2015 New research features graphene as a promising novel surface coating that can be used to minimize metallic corrosion under harsh microbial conditions. The results have been published in Scientific Reports ("Superiority of Graphene over Polymer Coatings for Prevention of Microbially Induced Corrosion")
"The most significant finding of our work is that graphene coating offers 100-fold improvement in corrosion resistance compared to commercial polymer coatings available in the market," Dr. Ajay Krishnamurthy, currently a Guest Researcher at the Engineering lab (EL) at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the paper's first co-author, tells Nanowerk. "This finding is remarkable considering that graphene is nearly 4000 times thinner than several commercial coatings but offers more than an order of magnitude higher resistance to microbial attack."
Ultra-thin graphene coatings have already been demonstrated as corrosion-resistant coatings for metals. However, as Krishnamurthy notes, two recent studies have provided some very interesting observations on the failure of graphene coatings on copper substrates.
"CVD graphene coatings have come under a lot of scrutiny recently. This is because the CVD process of producing graphene often introduces surface defects such as dangling bonds, stone wales defects, point defects etc. Coupled with its superior electrical conductivity, these sites act as means of charge transport and lead to localized (pitting) corrosion of the metallic surfaces over long periods of time."
New graphene-coated e-fabrics detect noxious gases-Phys.org - 10/13/2015 Scientists in Korea have developed wearable, graphene-coated fabrics that can detect dangerous gases present in the air, alerting the wearer by turning on an LED light.
The researchers, from the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute and Konkuk University in the Republic of Korea, coated cotton and polyester yarn with a nanoglue called bovine serum albumin (BSA). The yarns were then wrapped in graphene oxide sheets.
Graphene is an incredibly strong one-atom-thick layer of carbon, and is known for its excellent conductive properties of heat and electricity. The graphene sheets stuck very well to the nanoglue—so much so that further testing showed the fabrics retained their electrical conducting properties after 1,000 consecutive cycles of bending and straightening and ten washing tests with various chemical detergents. Finally, the graphene oxide yarns were exposed to a chemical reduction process, which involves the gaining of electrons.
The reduced-graphene-oxide-coated materials were found to be particularly sensitive to detecting nitrogen dioxide, a pollutant gas commonly found in vehicle exhaust that also results from fossil fuel combustion. Prolonged exposure to nitrogen dioxide can be dangerous to human health, causing many respiratory-related illnesses. Exposure of these specially-treated fabrics to nitrogen dioxide led to a change in the electrical resistance of the reduced graphene oxide.
Reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: a potential anticancer nanotherapy-Dove Press - 10/06/2015 T. amurensis plant extract-mediated rGO–Ag nanocomposites could facilitate the large-scale production of graphene-based nanocomposites; rGO–Ag showed a significant inhibiting effect on cell viability compared to graphene oxide, rGO, and silver nanoparticles. The nanocomposites could be effective non-toxic therapeutic agents for the treatment of both cancer and cancer stem cells.
Graphene teams up with two-dimensional crystals for faster data communications-Phys.org - 10/05/2015 In the recent work published today in Nature Nanotechnology, the research group led by Prof at ICFO Frank Koppens has shown that a two-dimensional crystal, combined with graphene, has the capability to detect optical pulses with a response faster than ten picoseconds, while maintaining a high efficiency. By using ultra-fast laser pulses, the researchers have shown a record-high photo-response speed for a heterostructure made of two-dimensional materials. These new materials are gaining more and more attention due to their amazing and rich variety of properties.
An important advantage of these devices based on graphene and other two-dimensional materials is that they can be integrated monolithically with silicon photonics enabling a new class of photonic integrated circuits. Although this study has been focused on the intrinsic properties of the photo-detection device, the next step is to develop prototype photonic circuitry and explore ways to improve large-scale production of these devices.
3D graphene with high surface area and large mesopore volume-Nanowerk - 10/05/2015 The performance of batteries and supercapacitors depends on the density at which they can store energy and the speed at which they can be charged and discharged. These functions critically depend on the nanostructured electrodes that are used in these energy systems.
Porous carbon nanomaterials are widely employed as electrodes for supercapacitors and electrodes in commercial lithium ion batteries. Porous carbon, such as activated carbon, microporous carbon, and mesoporous carbon, usually has very high surface area and tunable porous structure but very poor electrical conductivity. In contrast, sp2 carbon – graphene, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes – exhibit high electrical conductivity but limited surface area.
"A carbon material with high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area, tunable pore structure, mechanically robust framework, and high chemical stability is an important requirement for advanced electrochemical energy storage," Dr. Qiang Zhang, an associate professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Tsinghua University, tells Nanowerk. "However, neither porous carbon or sp2 carbon can full meet these requirements yet."
How to create a conductive carbon material with especially large pore volume, and hence large surface area, has therefore been a key focus in electrode research. Recently, Zhang's group has succeeded in creating a novel 3D porous graphene framework (PGF) that inherits the hierarchical mesoporous structure of oxide templates. The as-obtained material possesses a high surface area of 1448 m2 g-1, 91.6% of which is contributed by mesopores, and a high mesopore volume of 2.40 cm3 g-1.
Graphene as a front contact for silicon-perovskite tandem solar cells-Phys.org - 10/02/2015 Now a group headed by Prof. Norbert Nickel has introduced a new solution. Dr. Marc Gluba and PhD student Felix Lang have developed a process to cover the perovskite layer evenly with graphene. Graphene consists of carbon atoms that have arranged themselves into a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice forming an extremely thin film that is highly conductive and highly transparent.
As a first step, the scientists promote growth of the graphene onto copper foil from a methane atmosphere at about 1000 degrees Celsius. For the subsequent steps, they stabilise the fragile layer with a polymer that protects the graphene from cracking. In the following step, Felix Lang etches away the copper foil. This enables him to transfer the protected graphene film onto the perovskite. "This is normally carried out in water. The graphene film floats on the surface and is fished out by the solar cell, so to speak. However, in this case this technique does not work, because the performance of the perovskite degrades with moisture. Therefore we had to find another liquid that does not attack perovskite, yet is as similar to water as possible", explains Gluba.
Subsequent measurements showed that the graphene layer is an ideal front contact in several respects. Thanks to its high transparency, none of the sunlight's energy is lost in this layer. But the main advantage is that there are no open-circuit voltage losses, that are commonly observed for sputtered ITO layers. This increases the overall conversion efficiency. "This solution is comparatively simple and inexpensive to implement", says Nickel. "For the first time, we have succeeded in implementing graphene in a perovskite solar cell. This enabled us to build a high-efficiency tandem device."
Wonder material could harvest energy from thin air-CNN - 10/01/2015 According to a study published in the journal Nature, graphene membranes could be used to sieve hydrogen gas from the atmosphere -- a development that could pave the way for electric generators powered by air.
"It looks extremely simple and equally promising," said Dr Sheng Hu, a post-doctoral researcher in the project. "Because graphene can be produced these days in square metre sheets, we hope that it will find its way to commercial fuel cells sooner rather than later."
How a Microscopic Supercapacitor Will Supercharge Mobile Electronics; Laser-etched graphene brings Moore's Law to energy storage-IEEE Spectrum - 9/28/2015 Our group at the University of California, Los Angeles, has created such microsupercapacitors using a simple DVD burner to forge the one-atom- thick sheets known as graphene on which these devices are formed, in arrays. Together with a battery, such supercapacitors could run a cellphone for days. And because an array is less than 10 micrometers thick—far finer than a human hair—it is completely flexible. Build these arrays on flexible substrates and they could power a roll-up display.
All these things can be done at low cost. Our fabrication method can easily be scaled up, and our microsupercapacitors can be readily integrated onto silicon chips. In many cases they can make up for the inherent weaknesses of batteries, such as relatively slow power delivery and long recharge times. So even in those applications where these devices cannot replace batteries, they will augment them enormously.
Chinese scientists develop new graphene based ‘super material’-TheTeCake - 9/28/2015 To design the material, researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, took tiny tubes of graphene and molded it into a cellular structure that turned it into a foam-like material while giving it the stability of a diamond.
In the testing, researchers found that the super light and super strong material was able to uphold 40,000 times its own weight. Apart from it had the spectacular ability to regain its shape even after it was compressed to 5 percent of its original shape. The graphene material did not get altered and remained intact even after the process of contraction and retraction was repeated over 1000 times.
According to its developer, the super material can withstand a force of more than 6577 kg per sq. inch. ...
North West universities launch world’s first graphene drone test flight-Bdaily - 9/25/2015 The collaborative effort between the University of Manchester’s National Graphene Institute and the University of Central Lancashire’s (UCLan) Engineering Innovation Centre (EIC), conducted in Preston, saw researchers fly a UAV containing graphene components to test the material’s robustness and aerodynamic properties.
Ultrathin graphene oxide lens could revolutionise next-gen devices-Nanowerk - 9/23/2015 Researchers at Swinburne University of Technology, collaborating with Monash University, have developed an ultrathin, flat, ultra-lightweight graphene oxide optical lens with unprecedented flexibility.
The ultrathin lens enables potential applications in on-chip nanophotonics and improves the conversion process of solar cells. It also opens up new avenues in:
– non-invasive 3D biomedical imaging
– photonic chips
– aerospace photonics
– laser tweezing – the process of using lasers to trap tiny particles.
"Our lens concept has a 3D subwavelength capability that is 30 times more efficient, able to tightly focus broadband light from the visible to the near infrared, and offers a simple and low-cost manufacturing method," research leader in nanophotonics at Swinburne’s Centre for Micro-Photonics (CMP), Associate Professor Baohua Jia, said.
Scientists use graphene quantum dots to produce azo dyes-MEHR News Agency - 9/21/2015 Iranian researchers succeeded in the laboratorial production of quantum dots made of graphene as catalysts to produce azo dyes to be used in color and textile industries, INIC reports.
Azo dyes are widely used in color and textile industries due to their high mechanical and thermal stability and they are applied in pharmaceutics as drug carriers.
According to Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC), the Iranian researchers succeeded in the laboratorial production of quantum dots made of graphene as catalysts to produce azo dyes. The produced nanocatalyst showed appropriate performance in increasing the efficiency of the production of azo dye compounds.
Graphene Filament Enables Fabrication of Electronic Devices with 3-D Printing-IEEE Spectrum - 9/17/2015 Now a start-up based in Calverton, NY, Graphene 3D Lab, Inc., has made commercially available a graphene-based conductive polymer filament for use in 3-D printing to fabricate electronic devices. The graphene-based filament, which is targeted for both industry and hobbyists, has been dubbed Black Magic 3D.
"Our material is the most electrically conductive material on the market right now and is the best option for 3-D printing of electronics," claimed Daniel Stolyarov, who along with Elena Polyakova, are Co-CEOs, in an e-mail interview. "Even though our material is more expensive, you only need a very small amount (a few grams), which would cost as low as $1, along with regular material to make 3-D printed electronics. Without graphene this is not possible."
Graphene Ultra-capacitors To Power Milrem's Multi-purpose Unmanned Ground Vehicle-Defense World - 9/15/2015 Milrem will showcase its multipurpose UGV (unmanned ground vehicle) using Graphene ultra-capacitor technology for power at DSEI 2015.
The high power cells from Skeleton Technologies will be used to deliver energy efficiency and product reliability, the company said in a statement Tuesday.
The hybrid UGV has been developed by Estonian Milrem, provides a universal platform for any application from communication relay to medevac, lifting platform to fire-fighting. This plug-and-play capability is made possible by housing all equipment inside the vehicle’s tracks.
A highly sophisticated control unit regulates energy flow between the diesel generator, electric motors and Skeleton Technologies’ ultra-capacitors. This system reduces overall energy consumption by 25–40%. The ultra-capacitors also ensure reliability by starting the vehicle in cold conditions or after prolonged periods in storage.
Vittoria Premiers 1st Tyre Made with Graphene-Bike-EU - 9/15/2015 That breakthrough comes because of the unprecedented characteristics tyres that have the additive Graphene offer for rolling resistance, grip, and durability, as well as puncture resistance.
Vittoria presented at Eurobike the Corsa Speed tubeless road tyre that has, next to a cotton casing, a graphene added rubber compound. The effects of the graphene additive is next to weight – the Corsa Speed weighs a record-breaking 205 grams – also for higher strength, longer durability, better grip and improved rolling resistance. Vittoria brings this altogether in what the premium sport tyre specialist calls ‘Intelligent Tyre System’.
Graphene and Perovskite Lead to Inexpensive and Highly Efficient Solar Cells-IEEE Spectrum - 9/08/2015 Now researchers at Hong Kong Polytechnic University have combined these two materials to make a semi-transparent solar cell capable of power conversion efficiencies around 12 percent, a significant improvement over the roughly 7-percent efficiency of traditional semi-transparent solar cells.
The semi-transparent design of these solar cells means that they can absorb light from both sides and could allow them to be used as windows that serve the dual function of letting light into a building and generating electricity.
Also: See Phys.org article
Graphene and phosphorene upgrade sodium ion battery-Chemistry World - 9/07/2015 A new material comprising interspersed layers of graphene and phosphorene has been shown by US researchers to be a more stable, more conductive and higher capacity anode for sodium ion batteries than previous materials. The researchers believe it could be industrially compatible, and potentially allow sodium ion batteries to become useful for large-scale energy storage.
Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionised portable electronics thanks to their high charge capacity, but the high cost and geopolitical insecurity of lithium supplies (most of the easily mined salts are in countries such as Chile and Bolivia) present a problem. Sodium-ion batteries present a potentially attractive alternative as sodium is 90% cheaper and widely found all over the world. The Na+ ion, however, intercalates less easily into anode materials. Lithium-ion batteries traditionally use graphite anodes, into which Li+ ions reversibly intercalate. The inter-planar distance in graphite is only 1.86Å, however, whereas the Na+ ion is 2.02Å, so graphite is electrochemically inactive in a sodium-ion solution. Possible alternatives have proved unsatisfactory.
Using Graphene Plus to Create Intelligent Tire Systems-AZO Nano - 9/04/2015 At the EuroBike Show, a global bicycle trade fair conducted every year in Friedrichshafen, Germany, at the end of August, Directa Plus and its partner Vittoria commercially launched the new Intelligent Tire System (ITS).
The design of the new system is based on certain Graphene Plus properties for off-road and road tires collection. This launch is just the first of three global events, with the others being conducted in the US and Italy until the end of September.
New Layering Process Brings Graphene's 2D Properties to the 3D World-IEEE Spectrum - 9/03/2015 Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) have taken a significant step towards transforming high quality 2D graphene sheets into 3D macroscopic structures that could be used for applications such as thermal management for high power electronics, structural composites, flexible and stretchable electrodes for energy storage, sensors, and membranes.
In research published in the journal Science, the RPI researchers developed a new layered structure for graphene that addresses the problem of achieving the mechanical strength of graphene in its 3D form while maintaining its attractive thermal and electrical properties in its 2D form.
The fiber was made with a scalable wet spinning process, according to Lian, and he believes the strategy of using different sized sheet structures can be applied to construct macroscopic structures (papers, fibers, tubes, and fabrics) for other materials with 2D sheet structures.
Graphene fuel cell electric supercar planned to take on Ferrari-Engineering & Technology Magazine - 9/01/2015
An electric supercar powered by a graphene-based hydrogen fuel cell with better performance than a Ferrari is being developed by a newly established consortium.
The car, to be named Edison Electron One, will be the first project of the newly established Edison Motor Cars – a partnership between Sunvault Energy, the Edison Power Company[formed 4/1/2015 https://delecorp.delaware.gov/tin/controller ed] and Delaware Corporation.
The firms said Edison Electron One, to be unveiled in 2016, will be equipped with an electric drive unit at each wheel, providing the vehicle with 1,355 Newton meters of torque, which is almost double that of a Ferrari 488 GTB and one third more than that of the Tesla P85D.
The firms said they are building the car to demonstrate their graphene-integrated hydrogen fuel cell technology.
"The fuel cell will be powered by an on-demand hydrogen generation unit built into the car and will only require water," said Robert Murray-Smith, Director of Sunvault Energy.
The car will be able to accelerate from zero to 100 km/h in about two seconds and will be rechargeable in five minutes, the firms said.
Edison Motor Cars will only make the car available to customers on a special-order basis.
"We are excited to be producing this truly revolutionary automobile that will put our Graphene Energy Storage Device front and centre on the world stage at the simple turn of a key", stated Sunvault Energy Chief Executive Officer Gary Monaghan. "The Electron One will not only be able to challenge any vehicle in performance, but will also be fully flexible, functional and convenient, just as a fuel-filled vehicle is today."
Energy storage breakthrough promises to slash trucking emissions by a quarter; Skeleton Technologies and Adgero SARL unveil ‘world's first' Kinetic Energy Recovery System for road freight vehicles-Business Green - 8/27/2015 An innovative new hybrid engine system featuring cutting-edge ultracapacitor technology is promising to cut emissions from road haulage by up to a quarter, after it was unveiled yesterday by Skeleton Technologies and Adgero.
The energy storage and hybrid technology specialists teamed up to develop what is being touted as the world's first Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) for road freight vehicles.
The system features a bank of high-power ultracapacitors, provided by Skeleton Technologies, that store power harnessed during braking and then release it through an electrically-driven axle to provide an acceleration boost.
The companies said the technology is projected to cut fuel consumption and carbon emissions by between 15 and 25 per cent, depending on terrain and traffic, and will also reduce other forms of air pollution.
In addition, they predicted the system would pay for itself in less than three years through fuel cost savings for road freight operators.
The companies said the system had already gone through rigorous testing, including vibration, shock and immersion tests, and will from next year be piloted by French logistics giant Altrans. They added they then plan to ramp up production, with a goal of manufacturing between 8,000 and 10,000 units a year by 2020.
Calling all industries: get your graphene by the kiloton-JEC Knowledge & Networking - 10/30/2015 Dr. Bor Jang, chief executive officer and co-founder of Angstron Materials Inc. (AMI) unveiled a two-pronged plan he says will eliminate these bottlenecks and jump start market growth.
Graphene has the potential to fully charge your phone in five minutes, clean up radioactive waste, create a super strong artificial limb or make ocean water drinkable. Until now large scale adoption of the “wonder material” has been stymied by limited production capabilities and a high price tag. Dr. Bor Jang, chief executive officer and co-founder of Angstron Materials Inc. (AMI) unveiled a two-pronged plan he says will eliminate these bottlenecks and jump start market growth.
"We are ramping up production of graphene from 300 metric tons a year to 1000 metric tons a year in 2016," says Jang. "Inability to source commercial scale quantities of graphene has historically hampered the growth and implementation of graphene-enabled and graphene-enhanced applications such as next-generation energy technologies, composites, water treatment, and corrosion protection. Increased production means we can bring market costs down too, giving companies previously priced out of the graphene market access to the material’s unique performance advantages."
Jang also revealed that AMI will open its extensive patent portfolio. "We’ll license our graphene production processes to select partners worldwide,” he says. “This open architecture approach will create a graphene ecosystem that can foster innovation and tear down walls that have inhibited global collaboration. In turn this will equip manufacturers to develop graphene-based products that range from everyday items to inventions that are truly life-changing."
...Headquartered in Dayton, Ohio, Angstron Materials is the world’s largest producer of graphene materials and a leader in graphene utilization and application. The graphene manufacturer is ISO 9001:2008 certified for full-scale graphene production. An annual production capacity of 300 tons supports a range of product development efforts lead by customers from 38 countries and dedicated to commercializing Angstron’s raw materials and graphene-enhanced products. Angstron’s internal graphene-enhanced products and technologies support thermal management materials, nanocomposites, energy storage systems, paints and coatings, and transparent conductive films.
XGsciences - Lansing, Michigan is home to XG Sciences, Inc, headquarters, where we produce cost-effective, high-grade xGnP® Graphene Nanoplatelets, along with a growing line of related products, in quantities to meet commercial demand.
Our 40,000-square-foot facility includes our xGnP® Graphene Nanoplatelets manufacturing center, as well as our accounting, administration, customer service, engineering, human resources, marketing and sales, and research and development departments. Our manufacturing facility has a current annual production capacity of approximately 80 tons of material.
Graphene Production Beyond The Hype: Electrochemical Exfoliation-Seeking Alpha - 10/05/2015 •Graphene has many special properties and its adoption has been limited by availability and price; •Few layer graphene has similar properties to single layer graphene in certain applications; •Affordable few layer graphene production has arrived; •Talga Resources is on track to be one of the largest graphene producers in Europe by the end of 2016.
CVD Graphene Films on Silicon and Silicon Dioxide - Graphenea Product Overview-AZO Nano - 6/19/2015 This article describes the properties and applications of Graphenea's range of CVD graphene films on silicon and silicon dioxide substrates.
Cambridge Nanosystems opens new factory for commercial graphene production-Cambridge News - 6/16/2015 The firm's process uses a ball of plasma, held in a steady state. Technicians use this to 'crack' gases such as methane and carbon dioxide and produce, in a single process, very high-quality graphene with a high level of purity.
It says the factory will allow it to increase its graphene production capacity to a hefty five tonnes a year, allowing it to work with companies in the automotive, aerospace, power supply and construction industries to develop the use of graphene in industrial design.
Central Florida Company Garmor Achieves Graphene Production Milestone: Garmor Inc, Increases Capacity for Manufacturing Graphene Oxide at Customer Sites-Nanotechnology Now - 6/03/2015 Orlando-based Garmor Inc.- a leading manufacturer of high quality graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide flakes - has successfully increased single-machine production of graphene oxide to 20 tons per year to meet the demands of commodity-type applications. This scale-up effort designed and validated an automated, turn-key system that produces graphene oxide and water as its only by-product.
Perpetuus: The Second Largest Graphene Producer-Nanalyze - 5/27/2015 Perpetuus Advanced Materials was founded by John Buckland and later joined by Ian Walters who also founded one of the UK’s first graphene makers, top-down producer Haydale which had an IPO last year. Perpetuus has independently verified the production capability of a single reactor at 140 tons per year. Perpetuus is the only company we’re aware of that has independently verified not only their production capacity but also their production quality.
ACS Material-Advanced Chemicals Supplier - Products: Graphene, Graphene Oxide, CVD Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Molecular Sieves and other advanced materials.
CVD Graphene - Creating Graphene Via Chemical Vapour Deposition – Graphenea - Graphene products by the CVD process.
Using the inVia Confocal Raman Microscope to Analyse Graphene-AZO Materials - 6/18/2015 The inVia is an extremely sensitive tool with high spatial and spectral resolutions, making it suitable for graphene measurements. The microscope can identify distinct spectral features and use these to differentiate graphene from other materials, including different forms of carbon. It can also identify and quantify strain, and detect damage and disorder in the graphene structure. The tool can also be used to measure the thermal conductivity, doping levels and electrical properties of graphene, and can determine the number of graphene layers...
Evolving Electron Microscopes Push Even Deeper: Technological advances in electron microscopes provide images and information of yet unknown materials and reactions.-R&D - 6/03/2015 Electron microscopy is a multi-scale, multi-modal and multi-dimensional technique for imaging materials down to the atomic level. Developed in 1931 by German physicist Ernst Ruska and electrical engineer Max Knoll, the electron microscope (EM) has evolved from Ruska’s initial 400X capabilities to its current 10,000,000X performance. The much smaller wavelength of electron beams, compared to visible light for optical microscopes, allows EMs a much higher resolving power for imaging samples.
EMs consist of two similar configurations—the transmission EM (TEM) and the scanning EM (SEM). The primary focus of a SEM is to image a sample surface, while that of a TEM is to look what is inside or beyond the surface.
EM technologies continue to evolve, each year improving upon limitations inherent in the devices. It was long recognized the resolution of TEMs was limited by intrinsic imperfections in the device’s electromagnetic focusing lenses, commonly referred to as spherical aberrations. A five-year research collaboration between the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, FEI Co. and CEOS (Corrected Electron Optical Systems) GmbH solved these issues with a 0.05-nm resolution research target obtained in 2009. FEI and CEOS recently announced a new collaboration with Germany’s Univ. of Ulm to develop a sub-Angstrom, low-voltage electron (SALVE) microscope. This multi-year collaboration will involve the development of a dedicated aberration-corrected TEM capable of imaging radiation-sensitive materials, such as 2-D and organic samples, and selected molecules with molecular or even atomic-scale resolution. The device is also expected to provide spectroscopic information at very low acceleration voltages.
RAPID 2015: Highlighting an Industry Coming into Its Own-Rapid Ready Tech - 6/02/2015 Attending a Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) RAPID conference gives one a strong desire to perfect the cloning process. You want to sit in on three talks simultaneously while spending at least eight hours a day on the trade-show floor, absorbing everything about additive manufacturing (AM). Now in its 25th year of SME sponsorship, the 2015 event attracted a record-breaking 4512 people (up 30% from 2014), with an excellent balance of newcomers and seasoned attendees.
Keynote speech topics were cutting-edge, from the challenges of 3D printing in zero gravity described by Jason Dunn, CTO of Made in Space, to the painstaking work of bioprinting materials that support drug development as explained by Dr. William Warren, vice president of Sanofi Pasteur.
Well-known industry consultant Terry Wohlers of Wohlers Associates said industrial customers and manufacturers will continue to form the bulk of AM’s adopters. His keynote speech, based on his 20th anniversary Annual Report on the state of the AM industry, covered topics ranging from HP’s entry into the AM world and the exciting possibilities for hybrid manufacturing systems, to the need for more metal AM units and the benefits found with personally customized products, such as insoles from Materialise.
Wohlers noted the AM industry has quadrupled over the past five years. These presentations made it clear that 3D printing/AM has officially stepped out of the "prototype-only" phase to take its place in the real world of "making," however a particular end-user needs to define that term.
...Presentations on materials were well attended and covered topics such as ceramics, reinforced thermoplastics, bones and precious metals. Brian Czapor, a research engineer at the University of Dayton Research Institute, gave a talk on the challenges of using carbon fiber filament to create replacements for aluminum tooling. Harald Lemke of NanoSteel discussed ferrous wear-resistant materials for AM based on induced nanoscale structures. And Dr. Elena Polyakova, COO of Graphene 3D Lab, explained how her company is developing a family of filaments including Black Magic 3D, whose graphene content supports combining both conductive and insulating parts on a 3D-printed object.
The rise of metal applications was an especially hot topic. Scott Dunham, senior analyst at SmarTech Markets Publishing, told listeners that metal AM systems are being placed at a higher than expected growth rate, with an 89% increase just in 2014 based on sales of almost 800 systems. (This figure includes sales of Optomec deposition systems.) His company sees a growing demand for systems that can handle volume production; however, a lack of standards is still holding these numbers down. Another point he made — echoed throughout the four-day RAPID event — was the need for integrated process monitoring. "Systems must capture operational data," said Dunham, "There’s a huge untapped potential here to (better) analyze and control process parameters."
ORNL researchers probe chemistry, topography and mechanics with one instrument-(e)Science News -5/01/15 The probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) scans a surface to reveal details at a resolution 1,000 times greater than that of an optical microscope. That makes AFM the premier tool for analyzing physical features, but it cannot tell scientists anything about chemistry. For that they turn to the mass spectrometer (MS). Now, scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have combined these cornerstone capabilities into one instrument that can probe a sample in three dimensions and overlay information about the topography of its surface, the atomic-scale mechanical behavior near the surface, and the chemistry at and under the surface.
Atomic Force Microscopes For Nanotechnology Research - Atomic force microscopes are essential for nanotechnology research that requires visualizing and measuring nanostructures.
FEI - SEMs and TEMs for material science.
UCLA Nanolab - Offer expertise in micro and nano-technology fabrication equipment, as well as professionally managed use of cleanroom facilities to UCLA researchers, industry users, and other interested parties.
Versarien successfully completes latest fundraising - Graphene-Info - 11/7/2017 Versarien recently announced a fundraising to raise approximately £1.2 million, Now, the Company stated that it has successfully completed the fundraising, which "received a very strong response and was oversubscribed".
Researchers flock to Warsaw for graphene conference - 6/13/2016 The scientific conference, entitled Graphene Week, runs from Monday to Friday.
It will be attended by experts on the production and use of graphene, including Konstantin Novoselov, a Russian-British academic whose work earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.
The conference is being held at the University of Warsaw and has been organized by the European Commission as part of Graphene Flagship, a 10-year European Union project.
Govt funds for graphene research - MiningNews.net - 5/09/2016 THE federal government has awarded the University of Adelaide $A2.6 million in funding to establish the Australian Research Centre Research Hub for Graphene Enabled Industry Transformation.
The uni will lead the new ARC Research Hub for Graphene Enabled Industry Transformation, with the University of Melbourne, Monash University and the University of South Australia all participating as collaborative partners in the program.
Other national and international collaborators include industry and research leaders from Australia, China, the US, UK, France and Spain, spanning mining and minerals, steel manufacturing, defence, and nanotechnology.
"Never has a material exhibited more potential to change the industrial world than graphene," hub director Professor Dusan Losic said.
"Our new national research hub will develop advanced materials, provide fit-for-purpose products and innovative solutions to a range of industries, such as advanced manufacturing, mining and minerals technology and services, medical technologies and pharmaceuticals, and defence."
"The aim is that our research will transform industry and support Australian businesses to embrace cutting-edge innovation and technologies that deliver high-value returns."
Brazil joins race to commercialise graphene - Chemistry World - 5/06/2016 Brazil has joined the global race to commercially develop graphene, with the opening of the Graphene and Nanomaterials Research Center, known as MackGraphe, at Mackenzie Presbyterian University in São Paulo. Since graphene was discovered in 2004, the material has been of great interest to researchers and industries around the world because of its very appealing characteristics, like the static strength and stiffness enabled by its two-dimensional honeycomb structure.
The new facility, which comprises more than 4,000 square metres spread over nine floors, officially opened in March. Its aim is to investigate the properties of graphene and nanomaterials through an applied engineering lens. MackGraphe is equipped to meet the needs of a multidisciplinary team of about 20 researchers, and strong industry collaborations will be integral.
UK graphene inquiry reveals commercial struggles - Nature - 5/03/2016 Concerns about the University of Manchester’s National Graphene Institute reflect a broader decline in industrial research and development.
The £61-million (US$89-million) National Graphene Institute (NGI) at the University of Manchester, UK, has been open for little more than a year. But a parliamentary inquiry into the United Kingdom’s efforts to capitalize on graphene is already putting the institute's progress under scrutiny.
The inquiry, which heard evidence from key players in the graphene field last week, was prompted in part by allegations in the Sunday Times newspaper in March. These included concerns that the NGI was not doing enough to protect valuable intellectual property around graphene. The university has denied all these allegations. But senior research leaders say that hand-wringing about progress at the NGI typifies broader worries about the United Kingdom’s approach to industrial research and development.
Group NanoXplore Inc. Providing Graphene Enhanced Master Batch Plastic Pellets to Industrial Customers - Market Wired - 4/01/2016 Group NanoXplore Inc., a Montreal-based company specialising in the production and application of graphene and its derivative materials, is pleased to announce that it has added graphene-enhanced plastics to its product offering. Compounded pellets for different grades of Polyethylene (PE) and Polycarbonate (PC) are available today and additional plastics are coming soon.
NanoXplore is targeting graphene-enhanced thermoplastics in response to broad customer interest for engineering plastics with enhanced electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The company commissioned its 8,500 sq. foot manufacturing facility in December, 2015 and today has a capacity of 400 metric tons per year of compounded master batch pellets. NanoXplore has been taking orders and sampling pellets to customers in Europe and North America since January 2016.
NanoXplore has been focusing recently on polyethylene (PE) thermoplastics and has obtained significant multi-functional improvements in performance compared to base resins. For HDPE at 0.5 weight% graphene loading, a 15% increase in tensile strength was achieved without degrading material toughness. For LLDPE at 15 weight% graphene loading, thermal conductivity was doubled, yield strength increased by more than 30%, and electrical conductivity was increased to the anti-static range. NanoXplore's ability to tailor the final properties of the plastics by adding graphene paves the way for engineering plastics in real world products such as electric motors, cellphone and tablet casings, and automotive and aerospace parts.
Versarien PLC and E3D Online start graphene 3D printing trials - 3ders - 3/31/2016 It looks like the industrial material specialists are also increasingly waking up to the potential of the 3D printing industry. Versarien PLC, a UK advanced materials developer, now evidently recognizes 3D printing as a viable option for the commercial application of the ‘Holy Grail’ of advanced materials, graphene. To realize its potential, they have teamed up with British hotend specialist E3D, to begin graphene 3D printing trials and explore options for taking this material out of laboratories and into the real world.
With this collaboration, Versarien is thus evidently heading straight for the biggest prize in material 3D printing. For those of you unfamiliar with graphene, it is essentially a form of carbon, just like diamonds or the lead in pencils. Unlike most forms of carbon, it isn’t a type of 3D shape, but is instead a 2D material that consists of a hexagonal sheet only a single atom thick. But its properties are what makes this one of the most coveted materials in 3D printing. Not only is it very light and flexible, it is also extremely durable (about a hundred times stronger than steel) while being a very efficient conductor of heat and electricity. Its theoretical existence has been discussed for decades, but it was only first successfully produced in 2004, and has been very interesting to manufacturers since then.
Graphene professor hits back after claim that Manchester lost out on lightbulb invention jobs - Manchester Evening News - 3/23/2016 The professor behind the discover of graphene has slammed reports that Manchester lost out on hundreds of jobs to build new hi-tech lightbulbs.
Manchester University physicist Andre Geim, who co-discovered the super-thin substance 12 year ago, has defended the role of the university in collaborating with private firms to create new gadgets - wherever they are manufactured.
It comes after reports that new, resilient lightbulbs partially developed by staff at the university’s National Graphene Institute will be manufactured in Taiwan.
MPs are now set to investigate the development and protection of graphene patents and devices to determine whether British businesses are missing out, according to the Sunday Times.
Geelong could be home to graphene manufacturing plant - Geelong Advertiser - 3/22/2016 GEELONG would be the centre of the rising graphene revolution under a plan to build the country’s first commercial manufacturing plant of the super material.
The thinnest substance made, graphene is 100 times tougher than the strongest steel and highly flexible, but scientists have long struggled to tap into its rich possibilities.
Now the thin material is being converted into commercial products, with its use extending to printer powders, smartphones, batteries and sports equipment. A Sydney-based firm has unveiled plans to build Australia’s first pilot plant in North Shore, tapping into the expertise of a Geelong engineering company.
Imagine Intelligent Materials has entered into a contract with Austeng for the factory, with plans to use two tonnes of graphene in its first year of operation for Australian manufacturers’ products.
Imagine IM’s head of research and development, Phil Aitchison, said Austeng had the engineering skills and support services to build the country’s first commercial graphene facility.
"The pilot plant will be used to bed-down our proprietary production processes and to supply Imagine IM’s domestic customers in 2016 and 2017," he said.
A Spanish Company Makes Bold Claims About a New Graphene Battery. Experts Say There’s No Evidence-Greentech Media - 3/22/2016
According to CEO and President Martín Martínez, Graphenano is producing batteries with energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilogram -- around five times that of current lithium-ion cells. A Tesla Model S equipped with these batteries would increase its range from 334 to 1,013 kilometers, he claimed.
Martínez also claimed that the new batteries are considerably lighter and safer than lithium-ion equivalents, saying researchers from TÜV Rhineland showed that the batteries are "not prone to explosions like lithium batteries." What’s more, these revolutionary new batteries will retail at more or less the same price as their outmoded lithium-ion equivalents, he said.
Graphenano will be offering three types of batteries within months via its subsidiary, each composed of its graphene-based modular cells -- one for electric bicycles, another designed for motorbikes, and a third for stationary domestic storage.
Full production will be underway by October, with Grabat’s projected 200 employees producing 80 million cells per year at the company’s factory in Yecla in the Spanish region of Murcia.
New Generation of Graphene Reinforced Carbon Fibre Prepreg Products - Nanotechnology Now - 3/10/2016 Haydale Composite Solutions (HCS) has announced the launch of three graphene enhanced carbon fibre pre-impregnated (prepreg) products in collaboration with SHD Composite Materials Ltd (Sleaford, Lincolnshire, UK) using epoxy resins from Huntsman Advanced Materials.
Graphene makes a hit at the world's largest mobile event - Eureka Alert - 3/08/2016 Just 12 years after graphene was first isolated in the labs at Manchester University, graphene is venturing out of the laboratory and into conceivable applications. For frontier research, these advances are coming at break-neck speed. The enthusiastic reception that graphene received at MWC is a strong indicator of just how far this material has come in this short time, as well as how far we can expect it to go in the near future.
Nearly 101,000 mobile industry professionals converged in Barcelona for Mobile World Congress to witness the launch of new products and applications, and also to scout out new commercial trends and evaluate market niches for innovative products, services and applications that could inspire new technologies. During these four days of non-stop activity, the Graphene Pavilion featured 12 companies and 12 research centers showcasing graphene-based prototypes, demos and applications to a continuous stream of visitors, press and companies interested in seeing graphene at work in operational prototypes.
Coordinated by ICFO and the European Graphene Flagship, with the support of the GSMA, the Graphene Pavilion embraced five technological and innovative fields within the mobile world: display technologies, wearables; Internet of Things; energy transmission and storage; and data communications.
Wonder material sparks rush to develop new electronics-Phys.org - 2/26/2016 Bendable mobile phones, quick-charge batteries and unbreakable touch screens—technology firms are racing to harness the potential of graphene, a wonder material which scientists say could transform consumer electronics.
Sunvault-Edison Power solar+storage project in Delaware could use graphene technology - UtilityDive - 2/25/2016 •SunVault Energy and Edison Power Co. have signed a solar energy generation and large scale battery storage project for three fire stations in Delaware.
•The total size of the project is 484 kW with both solar photovoltaics and a 600-kW/300-kWh battery storage system.
•SunVault indicated in a statement that the project will have EBITDA of about $250,000 a year for the expected 20-year life of the project.
Graphene Batteries Appear, Results Questionable - HackADay - 2/07/2016 To be fair, the graphene batteries shipped out to reviewers before HobbyKing’s official launch do perform remarkably well. In the interest of fairness, though, these are most certainly not stock ‘graphene’ battery packs. The reviewers probably aren’t shills, but these battery packs are the best HobbyKing can produce, and not necessarily representative of what we can buy.
It’s also doubtful these batteries use a significant amount of graphene in their construction. According to the available research, graphene increases the power and energy density of batteries. The new graphene batteries store about as much energy as the nano-tech batteries that have been around for years, but weigh significantly more. This might be due to the different construction of the battery pack itself, but the graphene battery should be lighter and smaller, not 20 grams heavier and 5 mm thicker.
Redcar's Applied Graphene Materials to raise £10.1m to ramp up production - Chronicle Live - 12/18/2015 Pioneering technology firm Applied Graphene Materials has announced a share placing to raise £10.1m to scale up its production facilities.
The Redcar business, which manufactures specialty graphene materials, has conditionally raised £8.1m before expenses through the placing of 4,628,571 New Ordinary Shares at 175p per share. It has also announced an Open Offer to raise up to £2m.
The main driver for the share placing is the fact that the Teesside business plans to ramp up production facilities to increase manufacturing capacity to six tonnes per annum.
The extra cash will also fund collaborations and joint development activity with customers, including development of new intellectual property, fund the Group as it pursues production orders and finance the working capital requirements of the Group for at least twelve months.
Directa Plus Launches the World’s First Graphene-Based System for Tackling Environmental Emergencies-Business Wire - 12/18/2015 Directa Plus (“Directa or “the Company”), one of the largest producers and suppliers of graphene for use in consumer and industrial products, is pleased to announce the global commercial launch of the Grafysorber™ Decontamination Unit, the world’s first graphene-based system for tackling environmental emergencies such as oil spills. The launch follows successful industrial remediation activities conducted in Italy and Romania.
North-East graphene work could revolutionise future aircraft - The Northern Echo - 12/17/2015 AIR passengers could soon be circumnavigating the globe in planes made with North-East technology.
Primary Dispersions is working on applying wonder material graphene to aircraft parts.
Bosses say tests are being carried out on graphene’s potential, which could see the substance used in resins to reduce wing weight and improve electrical and thermal parts.
Primary Dispersions is a spin out of the Centre for Process Innovation, and work to develop graphene is being carried out at its NetPark base, in Sedgefield, County Durham.
Bosses say initial results from the project, which includes Bombardier, B/E Aerospace and research and development body NetComposites, have been positive.
Steve Devine, CPI technology manager, said he hopes the endeavour will put the UK at the forefront of the aerospace sector.
He said: "The project doesn’t finish until next year but we have already experienced some extremely promising results."
"The final stages are to focus on the scale up of resins, which will allow the material to be used in the production of composite parts."
"The final achievements from this will truly give the UK a global competitive advantage, not only for the aerospace sector, but across other industries, such as automotive."
Saint Jean Carbon Receives First Commercial Contract for Graphene Advanced Materials-Market Wired - 12/07/2015 Saint Jean Carbon Inc. (TSX VENTURE:SJL), a carbon sciences company engaged in the development of natural graphite properties and related carbon products, is pleased to announce Saint Jean has signed a commercial contract for the design and development of advanced graphene material. An advance material will be made with the graphene the Company has been developing and added to a resin type material. The project that starts today is the Companies first revenue generation. The contract runs until the end of February and entails design and engineering work as well as full-scale prototypes for in product testing. The Company believes this is the first of possibly 10 to 15 additional contracts in the future.
Alpha, institute collaborate on graphene-based materials; University of Manchester to develop next generation graphene-based electronic materials - ept - 11/29/2015 Alpha, Somerset NJ, leading maker of electronic bonding materials, announced a collaborative partnership with the National Graphene Institute (NGI) at The University of Manchester to develop next generation graphene-based electronic materials for the electronics assembly & packaging, as well as for the energy and power market segments.
The collaboration is a multi-year effort and focuses on how to utilize these innovative soldering materials in applications where components must meet higher connectivity, mobility and sustainability requirements. Graphene-based materials provide significant improvement in thermo-mechanical reliability that are particularly useful in the energy and power industries.
Graphene Electronics Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2013 - 2019 - 11/25/2015 The report also provides breakdown and assessment of various factors impacting the market growth, which are suitably described as market drivers, restraints, and opportunities. The market drivers, restraints, and opportunities have been provided separately for all the ten applications covered under the scope of the report. These factors determine various existing trends and their impact on market growth. Overall, taking into consideration the various factors affecting the graphene electronics market, the report includes a holistic analysis of the global graphene electronics market, and provides an estimate of growth for the forecast period 2015 to 2025.
Some of the leading players in the market are Graphene Frontiers (U.S.), Graphene Laboratories, Inc. (U.S.), Graphene Square (South Korea), Grafoid, Inc. (Canada), Graphenea S.A. (Spain), Skeleton Technologies (Germany), Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. (South Korea.), IBM Corporation (U.S.), SanDisk Corporation (U.S.) and Galaxy Microsystems, Ltd. (China) among others.
Research and Markets: Global and Chinese Graphene Industry Report 2015-2018 - Businesswire - 11/19/2015 Graphene, a miracle material discovered in 2004, has always drawn people's attention, and is still in the critical stage of R&D and industrialization with the whole industry chain having not fully taken shape.
Global graphene market size is only USD24.4 million in 2015, and most of demand comes from semiconductor electronics, lithium battery and composite materials industries, which seize a combined 60.1% share. As progress is made in the industrialized application of graphene, global graphene market size is expected to hit USD65 million in 2018.
Global Graphene, 2D Materials and Carbon Nanotubes Markets 2015-2025 - Technologies and Opportunities Analysis Report-PR Newswire - 11/19/2015 Latest up-to-date analysis shows that the graphene market will reach nearly $200m in 2026 at the material level. This year, our forecasts are more granular than ever before, covering more than 17 specific application sectors.
Oak Ridge startup General Graphene nets $8.7M financing round-Knoxville News Sentinel - 11/19/2015 "(General Graphene has) the money to create the first machine that will do some amazing things and to begin R&D on the second phase of their whole project," Dobson said. "It should be a international leader in the graphene field within 24 months."
The company's proprietary technology allows sheets of graphene to be printed in quantities and at costs suitable for widespread use. Potential applications include flexible electronics, wear-resistant coatings, solar panels and a variety of other uses in the aerospace, electronics and manufacturing industries.
"We are going to use (the funds) to take us to full prototype and beginning of production," Sherrill said. "It will prove out what the material can do ... right now you can get graphene on the size of a deck of cards for maybe a thousand dollars -- not enough to do anything with except experiment, and even then not very much. Our first prototype -- proof of concept -- will produce stuff about the size of a piece of paper (for much less)."
Graphene is shaping nation's high-tech dreams-China Daily - 10/29/2015 China is now the global leader in patents and publications related to carbon nanotubes and graphene research and manufacturing, accounting for about 47 percent of the total patents, the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom said on Wednesday.
But experts warned that an oversupply in lower-grade graphene may occur in the near future as a result of aggressive capacity expansion in the country.
Eyewitness: Chinese President visits Graphene Institute-The Mancunion - 10/24/2015 The President, a chemical engineer himself, was shown around the research centre by University of Manchester student representatives and observed demonstrations that presented a range of graphene-based prototypes, including pioneering drug delivery for cancer treatment.
The President’s visit coincided with the release of a statement from Huawei, the world’s largest telecommunications equipment manufacturer based in China. The company announced their partnership with the National Graphene Institute to research graphene and other related 2D materials.
Huawei to invest $1bn in ICT; keen on graphene applications-Venture Capital Post - 10/20/2015 Chinese mobile maker Huawei Technologies Co Ltd has decided to invest $1billion on information and communication technology (ICT) development over the next five years. Huawei will work closely with Britain in the development of technology applications in the telecommunications segment.
Huawei is keen on using graphene in the ICT sector. More details are likely to be announced during the visit of China's President Xi Jinping to Britain. The telecommunications equipment manufacturer from the world's second largest economy is investing millions of pounds in the research project.
Graphene is here to stay-Investors Intel - 10/19/2015 Graphene is no longer a theoretical wonder material. The presentations in Montreal also showed that many, including some of the largest companies in the world such as Samsung and Lockheed Martin are working toward developing commercial applications.
GO Foundation- Empowering Graphene's Commercialization-Press Release - 10/09/2015 NAATBatt International of the United States; Phantoms Foundation of Spain, and; Grafoid Inc. of Canada, are pleased to announce the launch of GO Foundation (Graphene Organization Foundation), a not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting graphene innovation and commercialization for the betterment of humanity.
The Foundation's website www.gofoundation.ca is now live and provides information on GO Foundation membership, eligibility criteria and program outlines for applicants.
GO Foundation supports start up graphene entrepreneurs, scientific innovators and small and medium enterprises engaged in materials and product development. Our aim is to assist entrepreneurs in bringing their inventions to market.
2D Carbon Graphene Research Company Gets Listed on Chinese Stock Exchange-Azonano - 10/09/2015 Based in Changzhou, China, the company focuses on mass-production of large-scale graphene transparent conductive film, as well as research, development and technical support for applied graphene technology. 2D Carbon's technology is based on research with graphene - a thin layer of pure carbon atoms, bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice - done at UH.
Peng was part of a team led by Stephen Pei, professor of electrical and computer engineering at UH and deputy director of the Center for Advanced Materials, which discovered a way to synthesize graphene film on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), transferring the film to other substrates. That opened the door to commercial uses for CVD graphene film. Qingkai Yu, who remains on the faculty at UH, also was a member of the team.
Graphene venture aims to revolutionise water treatment-Proactive Investors - 10/07/2015 Graphene provided by Haydale (LON:HAYD) is being used in a potentially ground breaking water filtration project involving Sellafield and the UK’s Centre for Process Innovation (CPI).
The collaboration project is led by G2O Water International, which has developed a graphene enabled self-cleaning membrane that could be used in new water filtration systems.
This early-stage technology uses layers of graphene oxide, a variant of the 2D nano-material, in such a way that only water molecules can pass through.
Graphene Nano picks up drilling lubricant contract in Turkmenistan-Proactive Investors - 10/06/2015 Graphene Nanochem (LON:GRPH) has won a US$384,000 order for its water-based drilling additive PlatQuartZ from a Middle East oil company working in Turkmenistan. The additive enhances the rate of penetration in drilling and oil recovery in difficult wells.
China Encourages Commercial Use of Graphene-Yibada - 10/05/2015 The commercial application of graphene in China is expected to rise after successful breakthroughs made by Chinese research teams, according to a report by Shanghai-based China Business News.
According to sources from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Chinese government is keen on supporting industries that can help discover more ways to utilize graphene.
Some of the plans include the establishment of an industry alliance and an innovation center, as well as the publication of guidelines on the development of such industries.
The government has already approved plans to build an industrial park for graphene and other related carbon material in Qingdao. An investment fund of 100 million yuan has already been establishment to finance future graphene projects.
Graphene 3D Lab Files Full Patent on Graphene Manufacturing Process-Stockhouse - 9/29/2015 Graphene 3D Lab Inc. (TSX-V: GGG, OTCQB: GPHBF) ("Graphene 3D") is pleased to announce the filing of a non-provisional patent pertaining to the preparation and separation of atomic layers of graphene. This technological breakthrough represents a new, energy efficient process to manufacture, sort and classify graphene nanoparticles resulting in the potential for large scale production of high grade graphene. This patent relates to graphene nanoplatelets (GNP). Specifically the patent covers a new, energy efficient, non chemically invasive, process that significantly lowers the cost of preparing and separating high quality, low atomic layers of GNP. The application claims priority to provisional application No. 62/058,313, filed on Oct. 1, 2014 by Graphene Laboratories and will be assigned to Graphene 3D as part of the merger announced on August 12, 2015.
Nanotechnology Experts Receive Major Grants to Expand Graphene Research-AzoNano - 9/25/2015 A.T. Charlie Johnson, director of Penn’s Nano/Bio Interface Center and professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in Penn’s School of Arts & Sciences, and Marija Drndic, also a professor in Physics and Astronomy, are independently leading one of the 10 teams that received grants from the National Science Foundation’s Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation.
Flinders chosen as industry partner for Swedish graphene commercialisation programme-Mining Weekly - 9/23/2015 TSX-V-listed Flinders Resources this week revealed that it had been chosen as an industry partner within Svenskt Grafen (Swedish Graphene), a government funded programme to research and commercialise the graphene production from Swedish-sourced graphite.
Applied Graphene Materials trading ahead of expectations, signal directors-Chronicle Live - 9/18/2015 The Durham University spin out, which has developed a "bottom up" process for the production of high specification graphene, said the development of customer relationships, performance data and manufacturing progress had been strong over the second half of the year.
Huntsman, Haydale join forces on nano graphene development-Plastics News - 9/15/2015 Haydale Graphene Industries plc, a United Kingdom-based nano-material specialist, has announced that its composite division has teamed up with Huntsman Corp. to develop graphene nano platelets (GNP) in the latter’s Araldite epoxy resins.
The ultimate objective of the collaboration will be to commercialize the graphene-enhanced Araldite resins for a range of applications in the composites market.
Who is making graphene, and where – Examining a secretive market-Investor Intel - 9/11/2015 Looking at the total figures, the USA seems to be in the lead in terms of the numbers of companies producing graphene. However China and Europe are very much closer to the USA when looking at the numbers of companies producing graphene by CVD. This is important because the CVD method is the most promising route for making continuous sheets of the material that will fully realise graphene’s potential in the future. It is a race that is too close to call at the moment.
Early graphene adopters lead way for greater commercialisation-Materials for Engineering - 9/10/2015 After years of development, graphene is set for commercialisation. Here, we find out the applications that are likely to benefit and the techniques that have been developed to make series production possible. James Bakewell reports...
Meanwhile, researchers at Michigan State University (MSU) have shown that when just a 3% loading of GNPs – supplied by MSU spin-out XG Sciences – is added to a standard sheet moulding compound (SMC) formulation, the resulting composite is stronger by 40%, stiffer by 20% and demonstrates a massive 80% increase in impact strength.
Versarien lands US patent for graphene process; It is already working with a number of American customers-Proactive Investor - 9/07/2015 Versarien (LON:VRS) revealed it has been granted US patent protection for its volume graphene platelet production process.
It adds to existing patent protection for the graphene production process that had already been granted in Europe.
Versarien told investors it expects North America to become a key graphene market and therefore patent protection is an important step for the company.
£3m grant for Manchester graphene research-Manchester Evening News - 9/04/2015 The University of Manchester has been awarded a £3m research grant to develop breakthrough applications for 2D materials.
The five year grant, from charity Lloyd’s Register Foundation, will examine how combining one-atom-thick materials – including graphene – could create designer materials, fine-tuned to meet the demands of industry and commercial applications.
Such materials could have a broad range of safety applications across many industries including flexible optoelectronics, energy harvesting, gas separation and water desalination.
Revealed: How the next £60m phase of Manchester's Graphene Valley will look-Manchester Evening News - 9/01/2015 The Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre at the University of Manchester will ‘set the standard’ for showing the best use of the new wonder material.
It will house experts aiming to accelerate taking graphene to the marketplace.
Along with the £61m National Graphene Institute, which opened this summer and the planned £235m Sir Henry Royce Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, the industry-led centre will be at the heart of graphene innovation in Manchester.
The building, designed by world-renowned architect Rafael Viñoly, will also be built on the university’s North Campus and will be 8,400 square metres in size. It could open as early as 2017.
The centre will also have pilot production facilities and will allow research into other materials.
Iran leading country in publishing graphene articles in ME-MEHR News Agency - 8/25/2015 A study conducted by a researcher from University of Arkansas shows Iran has published the highest number of articles on graphene among 17 countries in the Middle East.
Kathleen A. Lehman from University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, carried out a study on the graphene studies in 17 Middle-Eastern countries, Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council reported.
This research studied and compared various indices such as the conditions of countries, top authors, top research centers, most cited articles and centers that support studies on graphene.
According to the results of the research, Iran has published the highest number of articles among the 17 countries by publishing 1,160 articles while Saudi Arabia and Turkey ranking second and third by publishing 412 and 317 articles on graphene, respectively.
Prestigious award establishes new graphene start-up - Manchester 1824 - 8/18/2015 A University of Manchester scientist has won a prestigious award for his business proposal to develop a range of graphene-based inks for printed electronics.
Top 10 reasons to attend Cambridge Graphene Tech Days 2015-Cambridge Network - 8/18/2015 Join Cambridge Graphene Tech Days 2015, a set of events over two days in November, all about graphene, graphene related materials (GRMs) and their commercial applications. With a fantastic line-up of high profile speakers, businesses, academics and policy makers already confirmed, this is not one to be missed!
ULS Multiwave Hybrid Technology Enables Futuristic Graphene Research at Rice University-Business Wire - 8/17/2015 Universal Laser Systems (ULS), the world’s leader in laser materials processing and Rice University’s Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology in Houston, Texas, are actively collaborating on advanced research on Laser Induced Graphene (LIG) synthesis and refinement. As part of that collaboration, Rice is using a state-of-the-art XLS10 Multiwave HybridTM laser system developed by ULS.
Graphene 3D Lab Acquires Former Parent Company Graphene Laboratories Inc.-3D Print - 8/13/2015 As a Graphene Laboratories spinout company, Graphene 3D Lab (V.GGG) was started to focus exclusively on developing materials and technology capable of turning the superhard material graphene into an additive manufacturing super material. Officially launched in 2013, the new independent company was seen as a bit of a risk considering at the time they only had potential products but no proof of concepts. But in less than a year they had developed a 3D printed battery, their Conductive Graphene 3D printing filament, attracted major investors and went public, quickly being valued at over 40 million dollars.
As spinout businesses go, Graphene 3D Lab was a roaring success. And that success has only continued to expand, so rapidly in fact that they have now announced that they will be acquiring all of the issued and outstanding shares of Graphene Laboratories Inc., their former parent company.
MRL Corporation signs graphene commercialisation agreement-Proactive Investors - 8/04/2015 MRL Corporation (ASX:MRF) will look to identify commercial applications for graphite from its Sri Lankan projects after signing an agreement with Australian graphene company, Intelligent Materials. The University of Adelaide had achieved good results on the recovery of graphene from MRL’s high-grade graphite ore in Sri Lanka. MRL is aiming to develop an underground mining operation to extract high-grade, crystalline vein graphite with financing.
Tuning The First Molecular Sensor Made From Graphene-Forbes - 7/31/2015 Researchers at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EFPL) Bionanophotonic Systems Laboratory (BIOS) and the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, Spain) believe they’ve combined the electronic and optical properties of graphene to develop a highly sensitive sensor that can detect molecules like proteins and drugs inside the body.
High Quality Functionalised Graphene-Net Composites - 7/21/2015 Haydale and Versarien have formed a collaboration agreement to accelerate the development of their respective graphene projects.
Haydale says it will work with Versarien to create solutions for the manufacturing and functionalisation of graphene on a large scale suitable for mass produced commercial applications. Both management teams expect to share resources to maximise the exposure and utilisation of the expertise of both organisations, which operate in different areas. Versarien, through its subsidiary 2-D Tech, will supply high quality graphene platelets for functionalisation using Haydale's proprietary technology. Haydale will also supply high quality sustainable graphite for use as feedstock by 2-D Tech and evaluate the resulting material.
Beyond Graphene, a Zoo of New 2-D Materials Are Being Created-Discover - 7/17/2015 ...The realization that materials can be thinned down to the absolute limit of a single atom is spreading, both throughout the world and across the periodic table. Researchers are learning that 2-D isn’t just for the carbon atoms of graphene. Different elemental combinations can lead to fascinating new science and applications...
20 Things you need to know about Graphene-Investor Intel - 7/16/2015 ...20 things about graphene that might interest you; some you’ll be aware of and some might be new to you…
Graphene quality and pricing improves with maturing supply chain-Printed Electronics World - 7/15/2015 My purpose is to step back from popular hype, financial market exuberance (or pessimism), and science fiction to gain a sober perspective of the state of affairs for the top down regime of graphene suppliers.
Smithers Apex and the Graphene Stakeholders Association Present the 2nd Graphene World Summit 2015-BusinessWire - 7/14/2015 Smithers Apex, in association with the Graphene Stakeholders Association, is pleased to announce the second Annual Graphene World Summit taking place 04 – 06 November, 2015 in Barcelona, Spain. This conference and exhibition will focus on bringing together the scientific and business communities for technical collaboration, scientific exchange, and the successful development and commercialisation of graphene. The programme will encompass a range of topics including researching, developing, producing, financing and investing in graphene and graphene-enabled applications such as 3D printing.
GrollTex to Commercialize Graphene Mass Production Technology with The Triton Fund Investment-AZO Nano - 7/14/2015 The Triton Fund (TTF) announces their seed round investment in GrollTex, an early stage company with breakthrough technology for the mass production of graphene. Funds from the seed round are enabling GrollTex to accelerate commercialization of their technology.
A University of California, San Diego graduate student has found a way to use mass-produced graphene, an allotrope of carbon that is one atom-thick. Large-scale graphene can be used for applications such as water desalination membranes and flexible electronics...
Graphene NanoChem Wins Contract For Trial Well In Turkmenistan-London South East - 7/14/2015 Graphene NanoChem PLC on Tuesday said it has secured a contract to work on a trial well being drilled by an unnamed Middle East-based oil company in Turkmenistan.
Shares in Graphene NanoChem were up 15% to 15.48 pence on the news.
The trial is a phase one deployment of Graphene NanoChem's water-based drilling additive under a three-year drilling contract awarded to Scomi Oiltools.
The water-based drilling additive, which reduces torque and drag and enhances the rate of penetration in drilling, will be used by Scomi as part of its HyperDrill System technology.
'Women in Graphene' network launched -Nanowerk - 7/09/2015 Graphene Week 2015 in Manchester last month saw the launch of Women in Graphene, a support network for women in graphene and related 2D materials research...
Commercializing graphene solutions for composites and batteries-Printed Electronics World - 7/07/2015 ...This article is by Dr Angelos Kyrlidis Principal Scientist and Project Manager at Cabot Corporation , leading supplier of speciality carbon blacks worldwide. Cabot has an attractive programme and here Dr Kyrlidis shares some market insights with us.
Major Physics prize for graphene researcher: A leading graphene scientist at The University of Manchester has been awarded a major Physics prize for the quality of his research.-Univ of Manchester - 7/02/2015 Dr Nair’s breakthrough discovery was that graphene oxide membranes, which are impermeable to helium atoms, are highly permeable to water. His pioneering work on membranes has led to significant scientific and commercial interest, with potential applications in water filtration, liquid and gas separation and anti-corrosive coatings.
Graphene's potential sparks a flurry of mining companies exploring for graphite-ABC News - 7/02/2015 "We are more interested and focused in participating in the downstream value add of manufacturing and processing purified graphite products." [Graphene can be produced from methane-ed]
Graphene NanoChem Applies For Patent For New Drilling Fluid-London South East - 7/01/2015 Graphene NanoChem PLC Wednesday said it has applied for a new patent application for the company's latest invention of a new drilling and completion fluid that can be used in extreme temperatures and pressures in both oil- and water-based systems.
Aixtron Is The Top Stock In The Graphene Industry-Seeking Alpha - 6/30/2015 Aixtron (NASDAQ: AIXG) based in Herzogenrath, Germany, is a manufacturer and marketer of deposition equipment to the semiconductor industry. Deposition is the application of thin films to various types of surfaces, for use in the manufacture of electronics and optics. The company has been in business since 1983. One of the most important products of the company is its graphene and carbon nanotube deposition systems...
Aixtron is one of the few major players in the field of graphene. As a matter of fact, another graphene related company, Graftech International (NYSE: GTI), a New York Stock Exchange traded company, has recently received an offer to be acquired by Brookfield Asset Management (NYSE: BAM) for $5.05 per share, for a total of $546 million. Brookfield is a private equity firm based in Canada.
As for Aixtron, the company makes two type of graphene deposition systems, the CVD and the PECVD (plasma enhanced). These machines use a vertical flow showerhead concept to produce individual layer and multi-layer graphene in a consistent and uniform way. In addition, the company sells the AIX G5 WW reactor for graphene production on silicon carbide.
Skeleton launches graphene ultracapacitors-Electronics Weekly - 6/30/2015 Skeleton Technologies has launched graphene-enhanced ultracapacitors with a capacitance of 4500 farads. Skeleton claims this to be "the single biggest increase in energy density for ultracapacitors in the past 15 years". Energy density is a key development challenge for the ultracapacitor market and is fundamental if the technology is to eventually replace battery storage...
Skeleton’s SkelCap 4500 series addresses the heavy transportation and industrial markets where weight and space are at a premium.
Graphene 3D Signs Distribution and Manufacturing Partnership with Polymaker-Resource Investing News - 6/29/2015 Graphene 3D Lab (TSXV:GGG,OTCQB:GPHBF) signed a distribution and manufacturing partnership with Polymaker, a manufacturing company in Shanghai, China, and global offices in the USA, Netherlands and Japan. Under the terms of the agreement, Polymaker is set to distribute all Graphene 3D Lab manufactured specialty and functional filaments and provide filament manufacturing services on an as required basis.
New technology could spur 'a graphene-driven industrial revolution'-UPI - 6/25/2015 Scientists at the University of Exeter say they've developed a way to make graphene better, cheaper, faster -- and at mass scale.
Lead researcher Monica Craciun says the technology, known as the nanoCVD system, promises to usher in "a graphene-driven industrial revolution."...
The research team's new nanoCVD system reportedly grows graphene at a rate 100 times faster than traditional methods, and at one percent of the cost.
Impact Assessment of Graphene in Key Sectors : Graphene as a next generation material for industrial and commercial applications-PR Newswire - 6/25/2015 Graphene is being touted as a winder material across the innovation ecosystem of various industries. According to a Frost & Sullivan analysis, the graphene market is expected to reach $ million by 2020. Apart from increasing the adoption in industries such as electronics and composites, a number of new markets such as healthcare and cosmetics are expected to open up for graphene in the next 3 to 5 years. Graphene is a clean material with extensive production processes such as exfoliation and plasma vapor deposition; this can help in gaining advantage over materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT). Solving scalability issues and wide scale application potential along with characteristics such as mechanical integrity and electrical conductance also help the material gain competitive advantage. Monolayer and bilayer graphene, graphene oxide and graphene nanoparticles are expected to be the top adopted forms, especially in the electronics and composite markets.
Setting the standard for graphene-Nanowerk - 6/24/2015 ...The University of Manchester and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) have joined forces by holding the Graphene UK Standardisation Workshop at the National Graphene Institute (NGI). Key figures from the graphene supply chain worked together to provide input into a White Paper and discuss next steps for setting up a graphene centre of excellence focussed on characterisation, metrology and standardisation. This will be based primarily at the NGI and NPL, but utilising key capability from other institutes and industries.
Graphene market on the cusp of growth-Printed Electronics World - 6/23/2015 Each year IDTechEx Research releases its up-to-date market report on graphene and related materials: Graphene and 2D Materials: Markets, Technologies and Opportunities 2015-2025 . Our latest analysis shows that the graphene market will reach nearly $200m at the material year. This year our forecasts are more granular than ever before, covering more than 17 specific application sectors.
Graphene 3D Lab Doubles Production Capacity-Stockhouse.com - 6/23/2015 Graphene 3D Lab Inc. (TSXV: GGG, OTCQB: GPHBF) ("Graphene 3D") has accepted delivery of additional extrusion equipment that will double the potential production capacity of their functional filaments. This equipment will also be used to manufacture the Company's specialty filaments including the recently introduced conductive filament sold through the Company's on-line store, www.blackmagic3d.com.
Versarien and Haydale to take part in Graphene promotional exhibit-Digital Look - 6/23/2015 Versarien and Haydale Graphene have announced their participation in the UK Graphene Exhibit at Nano Korea in July. The two AIM companies will join a plethora of leading graphene technology companies, research institutes and government agencies at the event, which is supported by Korea and UK Trade and Investment. The exhibit, which will span 1-3 July, will promote the merits and potential of the UK's graphene industry to Korean stakeholders.
Graphene: Its all in the strategy-AltEnergyStocks.com - 6/21/2015 ...Applied’s strategy to commercialize graphene seems to differ from most of the other graphene developers. Instead of creating an entirely new product, Applied is focused on enhancing existing industrial materials by adding a small portion of graphene. The company’s engineers cite graphene’s mechanical, barrier and lubricating properties as valuable in increasing impermeability, reducing wear and tear, or increasing efficiency. In my view, this is an interesting strategy. Potentially, even at low-volume, high-cost production rates, a graphene producer could make a profit by offering higher priced graphene material supplies to a customer that will find the increase in performance worth the investment.
Graphene beyond the hype-Chemistry World - 6/19/2015 We’ve heard the facts. We’ve read about how graphene could push the boundaries of today’s technology in almost unlimited ways. We’ve even pictured an elephant balanced on a pencil. But looking past the headlines, it’s clear that a lot of the most exciting areas of graphene science are still in the early stages. It will be years, decades perhaps, before we see the first graphene-enhanced smartphones, aeroplanes or bulletproof vests. But beyond these pie-in-the-sky promises, the underlying research is gathering pace.
...‘If anything, the progress of graphene has been quicker than other comparable materials,’ says Andrea Ferrari, director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. He points out that for the first few years after graphene’s discovery in 2004, most research was restricted to academia, and was fundamental physics. ‘It was only around 2009/2010 that applied university departments and companies really started taking notice of this material – we are just four years in.’
There has been a surge in graphene-related patents over the last few years – the total number published more than doubled from 2012 to over 9000 in 2014. More than three quarters of these were filed in China (47%), Korea (13%) or the US (18%).
Closer to home, graphene R&D has attracted several hefty dollops of public investment. In the UK this year, the £61 million Manchester-based National Graphene Institute (NGI) opened with £38 million from the UK government. And the Graphene Flagship initiative was one of the big winners at the European commission’s future and emerging technologies competition, and will receive €1 billion (£730 million) from the Horizon 2020 budget over the next 10 years, which will support both fundamental and applied research. To date, the project has more than 140 partner organisations in 23 countries, and it recently released its roadmap for graphene research, which Ferrari is coordinating.
Graphene 3D & Ideum to Collaborate on 3D Printed Graphene Accessories For Smart Tables-3DPrint.com - 6/18/2015 Ideum develops high tech, large-scale smart-tables and walls, and they’ve now signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Graphene 3D Lab Inc. for a deal that will cover joint research, product development and marketing activities between the two companies.
Graphene 3D develop and manufacture proprietary, graphene-based nanocomposite materials for a range of 3D printing processes, among them, fused filament fabrication. The company also builds 3D printers from their facility in Calverton, NY. That location is equipped with material processing and analytical equipment which has resulted in four US patent applications.
Now Graphene 3D and Ideum plan to co-develop capacitive sensors to interface with Ideum product offerings, and Graphene 3D also plans to offer commercial, on-demand 3D printing of coasters, joysticks and styluses which Ideum clients will use to interact with their smart-table products.
The plan calls for the companies to develop styluses of various shapes which will be 3D printed in conductive graphene filament which may ultimately be used as brushes for photo editing software. The pair say these products will provide a more hands-on feel to the creative work often done on Ideum smart-tables.
Applied Graphene share price rises as Japan Patent Office approves production-CityA.M. - 6/17/2015 British company Applied Graphene has won approval for graphene production from the Japanese Patent Office. It is the first time the firm, which was founded in 2010, has been granted approval following an application, and sheds a positive light on the prospect of winning consent from the other five countries it has approached.
The super materials that could trump graphene-Nature - 6/17/2015 A wave of innovative flat materials is following in the wake of graphene — but the most exciting applications could come from stacking them into 3D devices.
Graphene And 2D Materials Markets, Technologies And Opportunities 2015-2025: Graphene Market Will Reach Nearly $200m in 2026-Digital Journal - 6/16/2015 The graphene industry experienced a massive hype in the past 4-5 years, although the hype is beginning to die down and elements of the industry have now even entered the valley of despair.
The number of companies supplying graphene has dramatically increased and now more than 35 suppliers exist. The first batch of companies formed in 2006-2007 are the furthest ahead as the majority of the new companies have little capital or revenue today. Nonetheless, the proliferation of companies is eroding meaningful differentiation all around.
Carbon Sciences to Develop Graphene-Based Devices for Cloud Computing-CNN Money - 6/16/2015 Carbon Sciences Inc. (OTCBB: CABN), focused on developing breakthrough technologies based on graphene, the new miracle material, today announced that it plans to develop graphene-based devices for cloud computing. Graphene-based fiber optics components, such as photodetectors, fiber lasers and optical switches, are expected to unclog the existing bottlenecks and enable ultrafast communication in data centers for Cloud computing.
EPA Promulgates SNUR for Graphene Nanoplatelets-Nanotechnology Now - 6/12/2015 On June 5, 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated through a direct final rule significant new use rules (SNUR) for 22 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN), including graphene nanoplatelets having a predominant thickness of 1-10 layers with lateral dimension predominantly less than 2 microns (PMN Number P-14-763). This substance is subject to a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 5(e) consent order that includes the following requirements: ....
Graphene Nanochem wins US$28mln order for new drilling fluid-ProactiveInvestors - 6/12/2015 The deal came through the firm’s tie-up with the drilling fluids specialist Scomi Oiltools and deliveries should begin in the fourth quarter.
Graphene Week set for 22-26 June-ElectronicsWeekly.com - 6/11/2015 Graphene Week’ will run from 22-26 June at Manchester’s £61m National Graphene Institute, to help business leaders discover how graphene could boost their businesses.
The workshops, taking place across the week, will bring together world-leading scientists from the University of Manchester, as well as businesses already benefitting from the use of graphene, to share knowledge and encourage greater collaboration, the university said. SME manufacturers will have the opportunity to find out how to capitalise on the potential of graphene and improve their business offering.
"Many new and exciting businesses have the potential to grow from graphene," said Richard Jeffery, director of Manchester’s Business Growth Hub. "The commercial potential for graphene is undoubtedly a major opportunity for business but, for UK enterprises to maximise its potential, it is essential that manufacturers and technical innovators understand its application and how it can improve their business."
Leading figures from the university will be highlighting how graphene can influence manufacturers working in sectors including electronics, sensors, composites and coatings, energy storage and biomedicine.
Delegates will get a tour of the National Graphene Institute to see the material in action.
Graphene Set to Make Waves in Multiple Markets Due to its Innovative Capabilities and High Performance-MarketWatch - 6/11/2015 Carbon nanotubes and graphene have been competing head-to-head for many of the same applications in recent years. For most applications, the development of carbon nanotubes has been gradually rising as evidenced by patent trends. Nevertheless, graphene has been making drastic progress. In the form of oxides or nanoplatelets, graphene is in a better position to fulfil market needs, as it is a durable, stretchable and lightweight material.
Versarien subsidiary reports "major advance" in graphene platelet production - See more at: http://www.digitallook.com/news/news-and-announcements/versarien-subsidiary-reports-major-advance-in-graphene-platelet-production--758367.html#sthash.NQKjw8ou.dpuf-Digital Look - 6/11/2015 Materials engineering firm Versarien jumped after announcing that its graphene development subsidiary, 2-DTech, has made a "major" advance in graphene platelet production, which it believes will accelerate potential commercial applications for graphene and graphene products.
Strategic Energy Resources has licence to commercialise graphene membrane IP-Proactive Investors AU - 6/04/2015 Strategic Energy Resources (ASX:SER) has entered into an exclusive worldwide licence to commercialise graphene membrane for separation Intellectual Property generated by Monash University associate professor Mainak Majumder.
The IP generated by this project is captured under a Provisional Patent application-2014904644, titled ‘Graphene oxide membranes and methods related thereto’.
It was developed under its second Australian Research Council grant with Monash University.
CSIRO and the University of Kentucky are collaborating partners in this research.
Skeleton raises €10m for graphene ultracapacitors - 6/03/2015 Skeleton Technologies, the German-Estonian manufacturer of ultracapacitors, has raised €9.8 million to ramp production of graphene-based ultracapacitors.
SRT Tomahawk Vision Gran Turismo Concept Revealed-TFLCAR - 6/03/2015 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles SRT Tomahawk Vision Gran Turismo made its debut Tuesday, showcasing the company’s vision of what cars will be in 20 years.
The single-seat hybrid supercar was designed specifically for the Gran Turismo 6 video game. The concept will be available in three trim levels – entry-level S, racing-version GTS-R, and experimental-version X.
...All versions have a composite chassis made up of carbon nanofibers and graphene micro-lattice structures. The body also uses graphene skins for all transparent surfaces, including the windows. Special consideration was made for the rear-end styling, as this is the angle that will be seen most often in the game. The rear end has carbon fiber details and five centrally-mounted tailpipes.
The concept was designed by a team at FCA in response to a challenge made by Polyphony Digital lead game designer Kazunori Yamauchi to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the Gran Turismo game. Design teams from across the industry are submitting their vehicle designs, which will then be made available through an in-game update.
Skeleton raises €10bn for graphene ultracapacitors-ElectronicsWeekly.com - 6/03/2015 Skeleton Technologies, the German-Estonian manufacturer of ultracapacitors, has raised €9.8 million to ramp production of graphene-based ultracapacitors. Skeleton says it is the only manufacturer to use graphene in their ultracapacitor cells. The company uses a patented material synthesised from inorganic compounds that has curved graphene layers allowing for better conductivity and higher surface area. The addition of graphene has doubled the energy density and increased power density 5x, says Sketeon. "Series B financing allows us to bring our graphene-based ultracapacitors to our increasing customer base," says Skeleton CEO Taavi Madiberk, "we are perfectly positioned to take advantage of the growing market opportunity, especially in Europe where the only other manufacturer is Bolloré Group-backed Blue Solutions."
Haydale Graphene targets aerospace market-The Proactive Network - 6/1/2015 Graphene specialist Haydale (LON:HAYD) has set up a division to develop the new material’s use in the aerospace business.
Ebby Shahidi has been appointed as Director of Aerospace and Defence projects while Quentin Fontana as Collaborative R&D Manager to spearhead the move into the new area.
So far applications have included oil pipe coatings, printing inks and toughened plastics.
Tesla Model 3 and Falling Battery Prices: Will Tesla's Model 3 be powered by graphene pseudo-supercapacitors that can be instantly recharged and last the life of the electric car? -EV World - 5/30/2015 What the car eventually looks like isn't as important as getting its cost down into the $30K range and a big fraction of that is the price of the battery pack. From Lux Research analyst Cosmin Laslau we hear that both Panasonic and BYD could, by 2025, reduce pack costs well below $200/kWh. He's forecasting prices as low as $172 per kilowatt hour for lithium-based chemistry.
However, if graphene pseudo-supercapacitor developer SunVault can scale their energy storage technology, the cost of storage could fall to $75/kWh as early as the end of 2015. Even at today's $150/kWh price tag, fossil fuels suddenly become irrelevant.
At this point, the question becomes, how soon can Tesla and Panasonic convert their Gigafactory away from lithium and over to graphene?
Britain is falling behind, says the ‘god of graphene’-The Times - 5/27/2015 $ The "god of graphene" has dismissed Britain’s lauded National Graphene Institute as "money being put into the building industry".
Sir Andre Geim, who was awarded the Nobel prize in physics for his work in Britain with the "miracle" material, said that of the £60 million of public funds invested in the centre, just £9 million had been spent on equipment and nothing on staff.
Graphene the new super material says Masdar-Gulf News - 5/24/2015 Abu Dhabi: The Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Manchester and the Defence Services Marketing Council (DSMC) have announced the successful gathering of defence and aerospace professionals to discuss cutting-edge research on promising new ‘super materials’.
Professor Brian Cox urges more investment in graphene "gold mine"-Insider Media Limited - 5/22/2015 Professor Brian Cox has hailed graphene as a "gold mine" that could change the face of manufacturing, but warned politicians need to do more to ensure Britain isn't left behind in exploiting the 'wonder material'.
Haydale to Sponsor Cambridge Graphene Festival-Novus Light Technologies Today - 5/22/2015 Haydale, a developer of enhanced graphene and nanoparticulate materials, has announced its decision to sponsor the Cambridge Graphene Festival (5–6 November 2015).
The Cambridge Graphene Festival is an event for networking and learning more about the latest advances in commercializing graphene and related materials in sectors such as electronics, displays, energy storage, composite, packaging, aerospace & defense and automotive. The festival includes a program of events to be held mainly in the University of Cambridge's new Graphene Building, with an exhibition of technology and tours of labs as well as a media event, conference and dinner at King's College.
One Word for Today's Graduate: Graphene - Technologue-Motor Trend - 5/22/2015 I stumbled across graphene at the Spania GTA stand in Geneva. This Spanish boutique manufacturer was showing off its ill-named Spano supercar, boasting three divergent applications of this new wonder material (the Spano is shown in this blog). The 12-volt starter battery featured lithium-polymer chemistry with graphene electrodes that allow it to accept a charge more rapidly and provide the same power as a lead-acid starter battery at one-eighth the size and a tenth the weight while lasting twice as long as and costing two-thirds less than a conventional lithium-ion battery. Inside, the leather was tanned using a graphene solution said to improve durability and flexibility while imparting antibacterial properties and replacing environmentally toxic chromium. And finally, the supercar's de rigueur 163-pound carbon-fiber/Kevlar monocoque chassis tub incorporates graphene powder in the resin, which is said to increase delamination resistance by 30 percent, fatigue resistance by 300 percent, and impact resistance by 15 percent. These features were all developed with Graphenano Nanotechnologies, based in Yecla, Spain.
Global Market for Graphene 2015-2025 - 200+ Companies Now Feature in this $12 Billion Market-PR Newswire - 5/21/2015 The global market for graphene continues to grow with weekly technology and production breakthroughs, new investment and public listings of graphene producers. There are now over 200 companies either producing graphene or developing applications. Driven by demand from markets where advanced materials are required, graphene promises to outstrip all current nanomaterials, especially in consumer electronics and energy storage applications. Other markets graphene will impact include aerospace, automotive, coatings and paints, communications, 3D printing, filtration, sensors, solar, oil, and lubricants.
However, few graphene products have reached the market as yet and these mainly incorporate additives to enhance toughness and flexibility. Current products include smartphone touchscreens (Samsung, Wuxi), tennis rackets (Head), battery straps (Vorbeck) and oil-drilling muds (Graphene Nanochem). Numerous graphene enhanced touchscreen products will hit the market in 2015, mainly in the Asian market.
A number of companies have developed graphene-based 3-D printing materials in the past 12 months, including Graphene Technologies, Grafoid, Graphene 3D Labs, AGT, Kibaran and Qingdao Unique Products. Credit Suisse forecasts that global 3D printing market revenues will reach almost $12 billion by 2020; the market was worth approximtely $2 billion in 2012.
Alabama Graphite Reports Additional Naturally Occurring Graphene Derivatives Found at Its Coosa Property in Alabama, USA-JuniorMiningNetwork - 5/14/2015 Alabama Graphite Corp. is pleased to announce that it has found additional types of naturally occurring graphene-based derivatives called few-layer graphene (2-5 layers), multi-layer graphene (2-10 layers), and graphite nanoplates (less than 100 nm thick) at its Coosa Property in Alabama, USA. This material was obtained using the same cost- effective process, as was previously used by the Company to obtain graphene (see press release dated March 12, 2015). These types of graphene-based derivatives are valued because they exhibit unique electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. This work was conducted by Dr. Nitin Chopra, Associate Professor at The University of Alabama under our sponsored research partnership.
What is good quality graphene?-Printed Electronics World - 5/13/2015 Graphene suppliers often tend to be small start-ups with localised operations, little capital, and very little revenue. This means that they cannot compete with large compounders. Graphene companies should therefore concentrate on their core competency, which is material production. Graphene suppliers should however develop dispersion know-how in-house in order to signal to the market that (a) their material can be dispersed, and (b) that their material performs well at the intermediary level. This, of course, will not be easy to do for graphene companies with limited capital and resources. Therefore, suppliers have to narrow their target markets, carefully pick the target applications, and focus on the right intermediaries.
Graphene to disrupt commodity demand-Australian Mining - 5/12/2015 The long term future of the market would lie with the disruptive potential of nanotechnology, particularly in the case of the nanomaterial graphene, he said. "Graphene presents us with a generational change in techology, taking the field of nanoscience one step further."
Making Graphene: A brief look at the state of the art-Investor Intel - 5/11/2015 The graphene research and development effort has been focussed on exciting and eye catching applications for the new material.
However creating the material at large scales is a tough problem that has not been solved yet. Claims of large-scale production are really suspensions of small particles of graphene that have some use, but won’t be the source of a full revolutionary advance in technology.
Graphene: The patent landscape is changing-Insider - 05/07/2015 The UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) has produced a report, ‘Graphene: The Worldwide Patent Landscape in 2015’ providing an indication of the magnitude and geographical focus of innovation in the field of graphene. We have reviewed the data in this report and summarise and expand on its main findings.
Enter the graphene era-Cosmos Magazine - 4/27/2015 Super graphene is ushering in a new industrial age which could surpass that of steam, steel and silicon.
Cathal O’Connell takes an in-depth look.
Meet Philly's supermaterial maker: Graphene Frontiers-Technically Philly - 4/15/2015 While other graphene manufacturers are mixing graphene with rubbers and steel to enhance flexibility and conductivity, respectively, Graphene Frontiers is mass producing large sheets of the material for a purpose that, in Patterson's words, can be "gamechanging." In a few years, you could be using graphene every day.
The Strategic Impact of Nanotechnology on the Future of Business and Economics - We are in the midst of a large-system paradigm shift driven by accelerated exponential growth of new technology. We are witnesses to faster, more comprehensive change shaped by new technology than any civilization in history. This is but the beginning of a new wave of technologies, such as nanotechnology, that will redefine, reshape and eventually transform economies and societies on a global scale. Nanotechnology is a continuation of the next chapter in the acceleration of advanced technology and, perhaps more importantly, it may point towards the transformation of the future global economy.
Disrupting graphene (Graphene Flagship Roadmap) - Scientists across the field of 2D materials have put forward a roadmap to steer graphene research off the drawing board, to a point where it emerges within disruptive technologies that alter people’s lives the world over.
Power Pitch - General Graphene - Startup Day 2014 Knoxville, TN-YouTube - 12/04/2014 Introduction to Graphene and pitch to develop funding interest.